The Mountain Caciques (Cacicus chrysonotus) - also known as Bolivian Caciques and Golden-shouldered Caciques - are found in northern and western South America, specifically in the following countries (from north to south): Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru.
The Mountain Caciques are relatively uncommon within their range and mostly occur in humid montane and cloud forests.
Recognized Subspecies and Ranges
- Northern Mountain Cacique (Cacicus (chrysonotus) leucoramphus - Bonaparte, 1845) - Nominate Race
- Found in the Andes of western Venezuela (Táchira) and Colombia (all three cordilleras) south to southeastern Ecuador (Loja).
- ID: Black plumage with a large yellow rump patch and yellow wing stripes. Blue eyes.
- Cacicus chrysonotus peruvianus (J. T. Zimmer, 1924)
- Range along the eastern slope of the Andes mountain range in central Peru (Amazonas south to Junín).
Not officially recognized, but also possibly a subspecies:
- Bolivian Cacique or Southern Mountain Cacique (Cacicus [chrysonotus] chrysonotus)
- Distribution: Andes of Peru (from Junín) south to central Bolivia (Santa Cruz).
- ID: Lacks the yellow wing stripes. Yellow eyes.
Nesting / Breeding
Reported to breed in small colonies (less than 10 nets). Most of the nests are clustered near the tips of larger branches.
Alternate (Global) Names
Chinese: ???? ... Czech: vlhovec zlatoh?betý ... Danish: Sydlig Andespungstær ... Dutch: Bergbuidelspreeuw, Geelstuit-bergbuidelspreeuw ... Finnish: andienkasikki ... French: Cassique montagnard ... German: Bergkassike, Mittelandenkassike ... Italian: Cacicco montano ... Japanese: miyamatsurisudori ... Norwegian: Bergkasik ... Polish: kacyk andyjski ... Slovak: trupiál andský ... Spanish: Arrendajo Montañero, Arrendajo Montañés, Cacique Montano Sureño ... Swedish: Sydlig bergskasik
Species Research by Sibylle Johnson
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