Mountain Caciques

Photo Wanted
Cacique Information ... Cacique Species Photo Gallery

The Mountain Caciques (Cacicus chrysonotus) - also known as Bolivian Caciques and Golden-shouldered Caciques - are found in northern and western South America, specifically in the following countries (from north to south): Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru.

The Mountain Caciques are relatively uncommon within their range and mostly occur in humid montane and cloud forests.


Recognized Subspecies and Ranges

  • Northern Mountain Cacique (Cacicus (chrysonotus) leucoramphus - Bonaparte, 1845) - Nominate Race
    • Found in the Andes of western Venezuela (Táchira) and Colombia (all three cordilleras) south to southeastern Ecuador (Loja).
    • ID: Black plumage with a large yellow rump patch and yellow wing stripes. Blue eyes.

  • Cacicus chrysonotus peruvianus (J. T. Zimmer, 1924)
    • Range along the eastern slope of the Andes mountain range in central Peru (Amazonas south to Junín).

Not officially recognized, but also possibly a subspecies:

  • Bolivian Cacique or Southern Mountain Cacique (Cacicus [chrysonotus] chrysonotus)
    • Distribution: Andes of Peru (from Junín) south to central Bolivia (Santa Cruz).
    • ID: Lacks the yellow wing stripes. Yellow eyes.

Nesting / Breeding

Reported to breed in small colonies (less than 10 nets). Most of the nests are clustered near the tips of larger branches.


Alternate (Global) Names

Chinese: ???? ... Czech: vlhovec zlatoh?betý ... Danish: Sydlig Andespungstær ... Dutch: Bergbuidelspreeuw, Geelstuit-bergbuidelspreeuw ... Finnish: andienkasikki ... French: Cassique montagnard ... German: Bergkassike, Mittelandenkassike ... Italian: Cacicco montano ... Japanese: miyamatsurisudori ... Norwegian: Bergkasik ... Polish: kacyk andyjski ... Slovak: trupiál andský ... Spanish: Arrendajo Montañero, Arrendajo Montañés, Cacique Montano Sureño ... Swedish: Sydlig bergskasik


Additional Resources

Species Research by Sibylle Johnson


Please Note: The articles or images on this page are the sole property of the authors or photographers. Please contact them directly with respect to any copyright or licensing questions. Thank you.