Leaf Warblers


Willow WarblerLeaf warblers are very small insectivorous warblers found in the Old World.

These are active, constantly moving, warblers always associated with trees, though normally in fairly open woodland rather than tight plantations. They occur from top canopy to undershrubs. Most of the species are markedly territorial both in their summer and winter quarters.


Description:

Most are greenish or brownish above and off-white below. Compared to some other warbler families, their songs are very simple.

Species breeding in temperate regions are usually strongly migratory.


The species are

  • The species traditionally placed in Phylloscopus are:

    • Red-faced Woodland-warbler, Phylloscopus laetus: Found in Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda. Its natural habitats are boreal forests and subtropical or tropical moist montanes.

    • Laura's Woodland-warbler, Phylloscopus laurae: Found in Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, and Zambia. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests and subtropical or tropical swamps.

    • Yellow-throated Woodland-warbler, Phylloscopus ruficapilla : Found in Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. It inhabits subtropical or tropical dry and moist lowland forests.

    • Uganda Woodland-warbler, Phylloscopus budongoensis : Found in Cameroon, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Kenya, and Uganda.

    • Brown Woodland-warbler, Phylloscopus umbrovirens: Found in Democratic Republic of the Congo, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, and Yemen. Its natural habitats are boreal forests, subtropical or tropical moist montanes, and subtropical or tropical dry shrubland.

    • Black-capped Woodland-warbler, Phylloscopus herberti: Found in Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, and Nigeria. This bird species inhabits subtropical or tropical moist montanes.

    • Willow Warbler, Phylloscopus trochilus

    • Canary Islands Chiffchaff, Phylloscopus canariensis

    • Common Chiffchaff, Phylloscopus collybita
      • Siberian Chiffchaff, Phylloscopus (collybita) tristis

    • Iberian Chiffchaff, Phylloscopus brehmii : P. ibericus, the Iberian Chiffchaff is brighter, greener on the rump, and yellower below than the Common Chiffchaff and has a tit-tit-tit-tswee-tswee song. It was initially named P. brehmii, but the type specimen of that taxon is not an Iberian Chiffchaff. This species is found in Portugal and Spain, west of a line stretching roughly from the western Pyrenees via the mountains of central Spain to the Mediterranean; the Iberian and Common Chiffchaffs co-occur in a narrow band along this line. Apart from the northernmost section, the precise course of the contact zone is not well-documented. A long-distance migrant, this species winters in western Africa. It differs from the Common Chiffchaff in vocalisations, external morphology, and mtDNA sequences. There is little hybridization in the contact zone, and hybrids apparently show much decreased fitness; hybrid females appear to be sterile according to Haldane's Rule. Regarding the latter aspect, it is interesting to note that the Iberian Chiffchaff apparently is the oldest lineage of chiffchaffs and quite distinct from the Common Chiffchaff.

    • Mountain Chiffchaff, Phylloscopus sindianus : P. sindianus, the Mountain Chiffchaff, is found in the Caucasus (P. s. lorenzii) and Himalayas (P. s. sindianus), and is an altitudinal migrant, moving to lower levels in winter. The nominate subspecies is similar to P. c. tristis, but with a finer darker bill, browner upperparts and buff flanks; its song is almost identical to P. collybita, but the call is a weak psew. P. s. lorenzii is warmer and darker brown than the nominate race; it is sympatric (of the same geographic region) with Common Chiffchaff in a small area in the Western Caucasus, but interbreeding occurs rarely, if ever. The Mountain Chiffchaff differs from tristis in vocalisations, external morphology, and mtDNA sequences. Its two subspecies appear to be distinct vocally, and also show some difference in mtDNA sequences; they are maintained at subspecies rank pending further research.

    • Plain Leaf-warbler, Phylloscopus neglectus : Found in Afghanistan, Bahrain, India, Iran, Israel, Lebanon, Oman, Pakistan, Russia, Sweden, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, United Arab Emirates, and Uzbekistan. Its natural habitat is temperate forests.

    • Western Bonelli's Warbler, Phylloscopus bonelli / Eastern Bonelli's Warbler, Phylloscopus orientalis

    • Wood Warbler, Phylloscopus sibilatrix

    • Dusky Warbler, Phylloscopus fuscatus

    • Smoky Warbler, Phylloscopus fuligiventer : Found in Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, and Nepal.

    • Tickell's Leaf-warbler, Phylloscopus affinis : Found in Asia. The species has a yellowish underside and supercilium (line above eye).

    • Buff-throated Warbler, Phylloscopus subaffinis : Found in China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. Its natural habitat is temperate forests

    • Sulphur-bellied Warbler, Phylloscopus griseolus : The Sulphur-bellied Warblers were earlier also known by the name of Olivaceous Leaf-warbler. Like other leaf-warblers it gleans insects from small branches and leaves. They are found on rocky hill and scrub forest habitats. The species is found in small groups and has a tendency to forage low in the vegetation sometimes even hopping on the ground. They have a single note cheep call.

    • Yellow-streaked Warbler, Phylloscopus armandii : Found in China, Hong Kong, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. Its natural habitat is temperate forests.

    • Radde's Warbler, Phylloscopus schwarzi: Radde's Warbler breeds in Siberia. This warbler is strongly migratory and winters in southeast Asia. This is a bird of open woodlands with some undergrowth near water. The nest is built low in a bush, and eggs are laid. Like most Old World warblers, this small passerine is insectivorous. This small warbler is prone to vagrancy as far as western Europe in October, despite a 3000 km distance from its breeding grounds. This is a warbler similar in size to a Willow Warbler. The adult has an unstreaked brown back and buff underparts. There is a very long prominent whitish supercilium (line above eye), and the pointed bill is thicker than that of the similar Dusky Warbler. The legs are paler than Dusky's, and the feet look large, reflecting the more terrestrial lifestyle of this warbler. The sexes are identical, as with most warblers, but young birds are yellower below. The call is a soft chick. The binomial commemorates the German astronomer Ludwig Schwarz (1822-1894).

    • Buff-barred Warbler, Phylloscopus pulcher: Found in Bhutan, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, and Vietnam. Its natural habitats are boreal forests and temperate forests.

    • Ashy-throated Warbler, Phylloscopus maculipennis: Found in Bhutan, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Its natural habitats are temperate forests and subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

    • Pallas's Warbler, Phylloscopus proregulus

    • Pale-rumped Warbler or Lemon-rumped Warbler, Phylloscopus chloronotus:
      • Simla Leaf-warbler, Phylloscopus (chloronotus) simlaensis

    • Gansu Leaf-warbler, Phylloscopus kansuensis

    • Chinese Leaf-warbler, Phylloscopus yunnanensis - P. sichuanensis is a junior synonym: Found only in China. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests and subtropical or tropical high-altitude shrubland.

    • Brooks' Leaf-warbler, Phylloscopus subviridis: Found in Afghanistan, India, Kazakhstan, Pakistan, Russia, and Turkmenistan. Its natural habitats are boreal forests and temperate forests.

    • Yellow-browed Warbler, Phylloscopus inornatus

    • Hume's Leaf-warbler, Phylloscopus humei
      • Mandell's Leaf-warbler, Phylloscopus (humei) mandelli

    • Arctic Warbler, Phylloscopus borealis

    • Greenish Warbler, Phylloscopus trochiloides:
      • Dull-green Warbler, Phylloscopus (trochiloides) obscuratus
      • Two-barred Warbler, Phylloscopus (trochiloides) plumbeitarsus
      • Western Greenish Warbler, Phylloscopus (trochiloides) viridanus
      • Green Warbler or Bright-green Warbler, Phylloscopus (trochiloides) nitidus

    • Pale-legged Leaf-warbler, Phylloscopus tenellipes: Found in Cambodia, China, India, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Russia, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Its natural habitat is temperate forests.

    • Sakhalin Leaf-warbler, Phylloscopus borealoides: Found in Japan and Russia.

    • Large-billed Leaf Warbler, Phylloscopus magnirostris: Found in Asia. It winters in the Western Ghats and associated hill ranges. It is found in dense vegetation and is more often heard than seen. The two note dir-tee call with the second note much higher is distinctive. They call often and at regular intervals

    • Tytler's Leaf-warbler, Phylloscopus tytleri: Found in Afghanistan, India, Nepal, and Pakistan. This bird species inhabits subtropical or tropical moist montanes. The continued existence of this species is threatened by habitat destruction.The name commemorates the British naturalist Robert Christopher Tytler.

    • Western Crowned Warbler, Phylloscopus occipitalis

    • Eastern Crowned Warbler, Phylloscopus coronatus: It is found in Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, North Korea, South Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Russia, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. Its natural habitats are boreal forests and temperate forests. Sometimes a Eastern Crowned Wabler gets lost and can be found in Europe.

    • Izu Leaf-warbler, Phylloscopus ijimae: Found in Japan, the Philippines, and Taiwan. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, and subtropical or tropical moist shrubland. The continued existence of this species is threatened by habitat destruction.

    • Blyth's Leaf-warbler, Phylloscopus reguloides: Found in Bhutan, Cambodia, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, and Vietnam. This bird species inhabits subtropical or tropical moist montanes.

    • Hainan Leaf-warbler, Phylloscopus hainanus: Found only in China. They inhabit subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and moist montanes. The continued existence of this species is threatened by habitat destruction.

    • Emei Leaf-warbler, Phylloscopus emeiensis: found in China and Myanmar. This bird species inhabits subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

    • Davison's Leaf-warbler or White-tailed Leaf-warbler, Phylloscopus davisoni : Found in China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. They inhabit subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and moist montanes.

    • Yellow-vented Warbler, Phylloscopus cantator: Found in Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, and Thailand. This bird species inhabits subtropical or tropical moist montanes.

    • Sulphur-breasted Warbler, Phylloscopus ricketti: Found in China, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam. Its natural habitats are temperate forests and subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests.

    • Lemon-throated Leaf-warbler, Phylloscopus cebuensis It is found only in the Philippines.

    • Mountain Leaf-warbler, Phylloscopus trivirgatus: Found in Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines. They inhabit subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and moist montanes.

    • Sulawesi Leaf-warbler, Phylloscopus sarasinorum: It is found only in Indonesia.

    • Timor Leaf-warbler, Phylloscopus presbytes: It is found in Indonesia and Timor-Leste.

    • Island Leaf-warbler, Phylloscopus poliocephalus: It is found in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and Solomon Islands. It has 19 subspecies.

    • Philippine Leaf-warbler, Phylloscopus olivaceus: It is found only in the Philippines.

    • Makira Leaf-warbler or San Cristobal Leaf-warbler, Phylloscopus makirensis: It is found only in Solomon Islands. They inhabit subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and moist montanes.

    • Sombre Leaf-warbler or Kulambangra Leaf-warbler, Phylloscopus amoenus: It is found only in Solomon Islands. This bird species inhabits subtropical or tropical moist montanes. The continued existence of this species is threatened by habitat destruction.

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