Javan Hawk-eagles

Eagles ... Birds of Prey ... The Sport of Falconry

Javan Hawk-eagle, Nisaetus bartelsi The Javan Hawk-eagle, Nisaetus bartelsi (earlier under Spizaetus) is the national bird of Indonesia. The scientific name commemorates Hans Bartels.


The Javan Hawk-eagle is a medium-sized, approximately 61cm long, dark brown raptor in the family Accipitridae. It has a long crest, rufous head and neck, and heavily barred black below. The crest is black with white tip. Males and females look alike. The young is duller and has unmarked underparts.

Distribution / Range

An Indonesian endemic, the Javan Hawk-eagle is distributed in humid tropical forests of Java. Because of the plumages variability of Spizaetus eagle, the Javan Hawk-eagle was not recognised as a full species until 1953.

Due to ongoing habitat loss, small population size, limited range and hunting in some areas, the Javan Hawk-eagle is evaluated as Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. It is listed on Appendix II of CITES.

Breeding / Nesting

One of the rarest of all raptors, the Javan Hawk-eagle is believed to be a monogamous species. The female usually lays one egg in nest high on top of forest trees. The diet consists mainly of birds, lizards, fruit bats and mammals.


  1. BirdLife International (2004). Spizaetus bartelsi. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 3 December 2006. Database entry includes justification for why this species is endangeredHelbig AJ, Kocum A, Seibold I and Braun MJ (2005) A multi-gene phylogeny of aquiline eagles (Aves: Accipitriformes) reveals extensive paraphyly at the genus level. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 35(1):147-164 PDF

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