The Green-throated Caribs (Eulampis holosericeus) - also known as Emerald-throated Caribs or Hummingbirds, Green Doctor Birds or simply, Green Caribs.- are large, mostly resident (non-migratory) hummingbirds found throughout the Caribbean region.
Alternate (Global) Names:
Spanish: Colibrí Caribeño Gorgiverde, Zumbador de Pecho Azul, Zumbador Pechiazul ... Italian: Caribe golaverde, Colibrì dei Caraibi sericeo; French: Colibri à falle verte, Colibri caraïbe, Colibri falle-vert or Falle vert; German: Blaustern-Antillenkolibri, Doktorvogel, Doktor-Vogel; Japanese: uchiwahachidori; Danish: Grønstrubet Caraiber; Finnish: Viherhuppukolibri; Dutch: Groenkeelkolibrie; Norwegian: Grønnkarib; Swedish: Grönstrupig karib; Polish: Antylak szmaradowy, antylak szmaragdowy; Czech: kolibřík hedvábný, Kolibrík zelenoprsý; Russian: Карибский колибри; Slovak: jagavicka zamatová, Kolibrík zamatový
Distribution / Habitat
The Green-throated Caribs are generally common in the Lesser Antilles, ranging north to the Virgin Islands and Puerto RicoPuerto Rico; where they inhabit wet forests, semi-deciduous woodlands, heavily degraded former forests, second growth scrub, as well as urban gardens and parks.
They occur naturally in Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Montserrat, north-east Puerto Rico, Saba, Saint-Barthélemy, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Martin, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint Eustatius, the British Virgin Islands and the US Virgin Islands.
Subspecies - Distribution and ID:
- Eulampis holosericeus holosericeus (Linnaeus, 1758) - Nominate Race
- Range: Found in eastern Puerto RicoPuerto Rico and Lesser Antilles (except Grenada)
- Eulampis holosericeus chlorolaemus (Gould, 1857)
- Range: Found in Grenada
- ID: Darker green throat with broad dark blue-violet coloration on the chest (Schuchmann 1999).
The Green-throated Carib averages 4.1 - 4.7 inches (10.5-12 cm) - including tail and bill. The bill and feet are black. The bill is slightly down-curved. The female is longer billed and her bill is more down-curved than the male's.
The adult male has a mostly green coppery upper plumage with a blue iridesence on the upper back and rump. He has a bright green gorget (throat patch) bordered by a metallic blue followed by the black abdomen. The blue band can only be seen in ideal light conditions, appearing black in less than optimal light conditions.
The adult female looks similar to the male, but her upper plumage is a duller green. Her tail feathers are dark blue, sometimes appearing black.
The Green-throated Carib is larger than other hummingbird within its range. In poor light conditions, it could possibly be confused with the Antillean Mango but they have very different tail patterns.
Vocalizations / Calls
Their calls are described as single syllablic, sharp-sounding "chup!" or "chuwp!".
Nesting / Breeding
Hummingbirds are solitary in all aspects of life other than breeding; and the male's only involvement in the reproductive process is the actual mating with the female. They neither live nor migrate in flocks; and there is no pair bond for this species. Males court females by flying in a u-shaped pattern in front of them. He will separate from the female immediately after copulation. One male may mate with several females. In all likelihood, the female will also mate with several males. The males do not participate in choosing the nest location, building the nest or raising the chicks.
The female Green-throated Carib is responsible for building the cup-shaped nest out of plant fibers woven together and green moss on the outside for camouflage in a protected location in a shrub, bush or tree. She lines the nest with soft plant fibers, animal hair and feather down, and strengthens the structure with spider webbing and other sticky material, giving it an elastic quality to allow it to stretch to double its size as the chicks grow and need more room. The nest is typically found on a low, thin horizontal branch.
The average clutch consists of two white eggs, which she incubates alone, while the male defends his territory and the flowers he feeds on. The young are born blind, immobile and without any down.
The female alone protects and feeds the chicks with regurgitated food (mostly partially-digested insects since nectar is an insufficient source of protein for the growing chicks). The female pushes the food down the chicks' throats with her long bill directly into their stomachs.
As is the case with other hummingbird species, the chicks are brooded only the first week or two, and left alone even on cooler nights after about 12 days - probably due to the small nest size. The chicks leave the nest when they are about 20 days old.
Diet / Feeding
The Green-throated Caribs primarily feed on nectar taken from a variety of brightly colored, scented small flowers of trees, herbs, shrubs and epiphytes. They favor flowers with the highest sugar content (often red-colored and tubular-shaped) and seek out, and aggressively protect, those areas containing flowers with high energy nectar.They use their long, extendible, straw-like tongues to retrieve the nectar while hovering with their tails cocked upward as they are licking at the nectar up to 13 times per second. Sometimes they may be seen hanging on the flower while feeding.
Many native and cultivated plants on whose flowers these birds feed heavily rely on them for pollination. The mostly tubular-shaped flowers actually exclude most bees and butterflies from feeding on them and, subsequently, from pollinating the plants.
They may also visit local hummingbird feeders for some sugar water, or drink out of bird baths or water fountains where they will either hover and sip water as it runs over the edge; or they will perch on the edge and drink - like all the other birds; however, they only remain still for a short moment.
They also take some small spiders and insects - important sources of protein particularly needed during the breeding season to ensure the proper development of their young. Insects are often caught in flight (hawking); snatched off leaves or branches, or are taken from spider webs. A nesting female can capture up to 2,000 insects a day.
Males establish feeding territories, where they aggressively chase away other males as well as large insects - such as bumblebees and hawk moths - that want to feed in their territory. They use aerial flights and intimidating displays to defend their territories.
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