Egg Incubation Temperatures

Egg Incubation Procedures ... Incubators

Temperature Requirements

  • The eggs of almost all domestic bird species can be incubated at the same incubation temperature; because of that, eggs of several different bird species can be incubated at the same time within the same incubator.

  • Developing embryos are fairly tolerant of short term temperature drops and the user need not be concerned about cooling that occurs when inspecting eggs. (Please refer to the "cooling feature" included with some of the later incubator models.) Temperatures above ideal can quickly have a serious detrimental effect on hatch rates and must be avoided.

  • A well-designed incubator should maintain temperature within 1/4 degree F and humidity within 1 degree F wet bulb temperature. A good quality egg incubator has a built-in temperature alarm which warns of high or low temperatures.

  • Precise and consistent control of temperature is essential for good hatching results. The recommended temperature within an artificial incubator depends on the type of incubator being used. If the incubator used has a fan for air circulation, the temperature must be adjusted to 99-100 degrees F. A "still-air" incubator (one without an air circulation system) requires a higher temperature as the temperature in such an incubator is measured using a thermometer with the bulb positioned at the same level as the top of the incubating eggs. The recommended temperature in this type incubator is 102 F. The reason for different temperatures is that circulating air warms all points around the egg shell while still air temperatures are warmer at the top of the egg than at the bottom. Therefore, increasing the temperature at the top of the egg will compensate for the egg's cooler parts. The same average egg temperature of 100o F can be maintained if the higher temperature of 102 F exists at the egg's uppermost point.

  • Do not allow temperatures to exceed these recommendations as temperatures only a degree or two above the recommended temperatures can kill chicks within 15-30 minutes, depending on how high the temperature is and the stage of development of the chick embryo

  • Slightly lower temperatures will not kill the chick embryos, but can increase incubation times and produce weakened chicks.

  • Emergency! The incubator broke down and eggs are at risk of dying! It is always best to keep a cheap incubator as a back-up. If none is available, you might try to use some heat packs like the sportsmen use. Other options are heating pads or reptile rocks.
Recommended temperatures (in Celsius and Fahrenheit):  Typical incubation period:
Hens37.4 – 37.6°C99.3 – 99.6°F21 Days
Pheasant 37.6 – 37.8°C
99.6 - 100°F23 – 27 Days
Quail 37.6 – 37.8°C
99.6 - 100°F16 – 23 Days
Ducks37.4 – 37.6°C
99.3 – 99.6°F28 Days
Geese37.4 – 37.6°C
99.3 – 99.6°F28 – 32 Days
Amazons 36.8 – 37.0°C98.3 – 98.6ºF24 – 29 Days
Macaws36.8 – 37.0°C98.3 – 98.6ºF26 – 28 Days
Love birds36.8 – 37.0°C98.3 – 98.6ºF22 – 24 Days
African Grey36.8 – 37.0°C98.3 – 98.6ºF28 Tage
Eclectus36.8 – 37.0°C98.3 – 98.6ºF28 Tage

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