The Coppery-bellied Puffleg (Eriocnemis cupreoventris) - also known as Copper-vented Puffleg - is a South American hummingbird that occurs naturally in Colombia and Venezuela.
It forms a superspecies with the possibly extinct Turquoise-throated Puffleg (Eriocnemis godini) that occurs / occurred naturally in northwestern Ecuador and possibly also southwestern Colombia.
Alternate (Global) Names
Spanish: Calzadito Cobrizo, Calzoncitos Cobrizo, Colibrí Pantalón Cobrizo ... Italian: Colibrì zampepiumose ventreamaranto, Fiocchetto panciarame ... French: Érione à ventre cuivré, Haut-de-chausses à ventre cuivré ... German: Kupferbauch-Höschenkolibri, Kupferbauch-Schneehöschen ... Japanese: doubarawataashihachidori ... Czech: Kolibrík medenobrichý, kolib?ík m?d?nob?ický ... Danish: Kobberbuget Kvastben ... Finnish: Kuparisukkakolibri ... Dutch: Koperbuikpluimbroekje, Koperbuik-pluimbroekje ... Norwegian: Kobberbukdunfot ... Polish: puchatek miedzianobrzuchy ... Russian: ??????????? ????? ... Slovak: pancuchárik medenobruchý ... Swedish: Kopparbukad tofsbena
Distribution / Status
The Coppery-bellied Puffleg occur at elevations of ~ 6,500 - 9,800 feet (2000-3000 m) in the Mérida mountains in northwestern Venezuela, south along both slopes of the East Andes to Cundinamarca in northeastern Colombia.
They inhabit montane forest and elfin forest borders (forests with stunted trees growing at high altitude), páramo vegetation with scattered, low shrubs and, in Cundinamarca, secondary scrub, where they nest in dense vegetation.
It is uncommon throughout range with only localized populations found in fragmented habitats; and its numbers are suspected to be declining. It is listed as Near Threatened (2010 IUCN Red List).
In Colombia, forests in its lower elevational range, on the western slope, have largely been converted to agricultural uses (cattle pasture and crop cultivation).
In Venezuela (Mérida and Táchira) deforestation is locally severe in Mérida and Táchira - also for agricultural colonization.
The Coppery-bellied Puffleg averages 3.7 inches (9.5 cm) in length - (including the 0.7 inch (1.8 cm) straight, black bill and the 1.4 inch (3.5 cm) blackish-blue, forked tail.
The plumage is mostly metallic green. The iridescent under plumage varies from emerald green on the chest to golden coppery on the belly. The vent feathers are publish-blue.
It has distinctive small white eye spots, and dense white feathering around the legs known as "leg puffs" - but those are not always visible. These leg puffs are unique to the pufflegs and have been described as resembling "woolly panties" or "little cotton balls" above the legs,
Juveniles have a mostly dark plumage with a green throat. The chest and belly are totally black lacking the copper markings of the adult. The lower bill (mandible) has a red base.
Calls / Vocalizations
Like most hummingbirds, they are mostly silent. Their occasional calls (often given after taking flight) are described as a high-pitched "tee" "tee".
Nesting / Breeding
The breeding season of the Coppery-bellied Puffleg typically commences in September and goes on until January.
Hummingbirds are solitary in all aspects of life other than breeding; and the male's only involvement in the reproductive process is the actual mating with the female. They neither live nor migrate in flocks; and there is no pair bond for this species. Males court females by flying in a u-shaped pattern in front of them. He will separate from the female immediately after copulation. One male may mate with several females. In all likelihood, the female will also mate with several males. The males do not participate in choosing the nest location, building the nest or raising the chicks.
The female Coppery-bellied Puffleg is responsible for building the large cup-shaped nest out of plant fibers woven together and green moss on the outside for camouflage in a protected location in a shrub, bush or tree - typically in dense vegetation. She lines the nest with soft plant fibers, animal hair and feather down, and strengthens the structure with spider webbing and other sticky material, giving it an elastic quality to allow it to stretch to double its size as the chicks grow and need more room. The nest is typically found on a low, thin horizontal branch.
The average clutch consists of two white eggs, which she incubates alone, while the male defends his territory and the flowers he feeds on. The young are born blind, immobile and without any down.
The female alone protects and feeds the chicks with regurgitated food (mostly partially-digested insects since nectar is an insufficient source of protein for the growing chicks). The female pushes the food down the chicks' throats with her long bill directly into their stomachs.
As is the case with other hummingbird species, the chicks are brooded only the first week or two, and left alone even on cooler nights after about 12 days - probably due to the small nest size. The chicks leave the nest when they are about 20 days old.
Diet / Feeding
The Coppery-bellied Pufflegs primarily feed on nectar taken from a variety of brightly colored, scented small flowers of trees, herbs, shrubs and epiphytes. They favor flowers with the highest sugar content (often red-colored and tubular-shaped) and seek out, and aggressively protect, those areas containing flowers with high energy nectar.They use their long, extendible, straw-like tongues to retrieve the nectar while hovering with their tails cocked upward as they are licking at the nectar up to 13 times per second. Sometimes they may be seen hanging on the flower while feeding.
Many native and cultivated plants on whose flowers these birds feed heavily rely on them for pollination. The mostly tubular-shaped flowers actually exclude most bees and butterflies from feeding on them and, subsequently, from pollinating the plants.
They may also visit local hummingbird feeders for some sugar water, or drink out of bird baths or water fountains where they will either hover and sip water as it runs over the edge; or they will perch on the edge and drink - like all the other birds; however, they only remain still for a short moment.
They also take some small spiders and insects - important sources of protein particularly needed during the breeding season to ensure the proper development of their young. Insects are often caught in flight (hawking); snatched off leaves or branches, or are taken from spider webs. A nesting female can capture up to 2,000 insects a day.
Males establish feeding territories, where they aggressively chase away other males as well as large insects - such as bumblebees and hawk moths - that want to feed in their territory. They use aerial flights and intimidating displays to defend their territories.
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