Images of Bird Circulatory System, Blood & Heart by Jeannine Miesle

Main Article: Avian Medical Terms / Health & Diseases by Jeannine Miesle, MA, Allied Member, Association of Avian Veterinarians ...

Avian Anatomy Image Gallery (NOTE: Some of the images / illustrations on this and linked pages may be too graphic for young audiences. We recommend parental supervision and approval.)


Avian Red Blood cells, normal… B4851DF2820D1B69564761CC&selectedIndex=26&ccid=2PnUVW3l&simid=608022238420797182&thid=JN. FRA2pLUKXlc3JN8lfpVfAA&ajaxhist=0

Avian Red Blood cells,

Aortic Arch in Heart… 06BC90A26354922A20DE&selectedIndex=136&ccid=%2fjQykJ%2fP&simid=607989459237734554&thid=JN. HjNsg7bPLjPtBN%2f0k19RmQ&ajaxhist=0

Aortic Arch in Heart

Heart and circulatory system of birds

Heart and circulatory system of birds

Layers of the heart, heart muscle (myocardium, pericardium, endocardium)

Layers of the heart, heart muscle (myocardium, pericardium, endocardium)

Circulatory system and Heart… AD5EDF91A332C32F7CFE6B3EEC&selectedIndex=2&ccid=KqT36oJj&simid=608039250791762293&thid=J N.pQcrZBVUSW2Bfah7KATb6w&ajaxhist=0

Circulatory system and Heart

Heart: Pericardium… DEFE7180C312947&selectedIndex=1&ccid=ioKuBLfd&simid=608008988470675156&thid=JN.QE%2f5DMIaATTSFsYSB rah1w&ajaxhist=0

Heart: Pericardium

Pericardial layers…

The Heart Wall / Pencardial Layers

Blood fractionation… 99097E7F5A61D981FA3&selectedIndex=19&ccid=Ugq9KkmE&simid=608032580713906949&thid=JN.lab2w4 BRGBL1BhUVGgFwWQ&ajaxhist=0

Blood fractionation

Buffy Coat… 2EE8BC6CB1EAA&selectedIndex=2&ccid=DEXsW2au&simid=608016861114073755&thid=JN.1sGRyiMTOy %2fPCNV8CQNnAw&ajaxhist=0

Buffy Coat


Apoptosis… 4CDD77C8998C91A5B5229CF2&selectedIndex=12&ccid=01p%2flKkF&simid=608035728922906593&thid=J N.YtSu9Vh%2fPnM8GFT31ZI7pg&ajaxhist=0

Apoptosis definition, cell apoptosis pathway, steps ...

Difference between apoptosis and necrosis… 5421FB0C53EE&selectedIndex=111&ccid=7UoD0jTW&simid=608035578594593976&thid=JN.P9LqD39CSqg ZSCvV3cIxgA&ajaxhist=0 85

Difference between apoptosis and necrosis

Cell structure and mitochondria… 8C96A6F38DCAE&selectedIndex=54&ccid=GMf4v0Ov&simid=608004757919108313&thid=JN.sBGxVCEMe3oOmSEy16 Kp7A&ajaxhist=0

Cell structure and mitochondria

Mast Cells and allergy

Mast Cells and allergy



Avian Eye… 3030BAE5246C&selectedIndex=7&ccid=l6bi1YzK&simid=608037747549145014&thid=JN.x%2fEWR3QulR9T cdY04z%2bm2g&ajaxhist=0

Avian (Bird) Eye

Avian Eye… 0A0&selectedIndex=5&ccid=TcWrBL73&simid=608054407734100980&thid=JN.MOQXR799X47%2bkrVjwucUsA&ajaxhis t=0

Avian Eye

Avian Eye muscles… 04DFB&selectedIndex=403&ccid=OYjNG%2fgi&simid=607989257379053594&thid=JN.JDCsoFqkW9J5JG0AYkQsdg&aj axhist=0

Avian Eye muscles

Nictitating Membrane… 3C042133CC6C99E1A98&selectedIndex=134&ccid=7CIc5nQH&simid=608013987803824577&thid=JN.A5gNNugLCGqO M0tEwUG6DA&ajaxhist=0

Nictitating Membrane

Cataract in eye… 08DDFCEBC35E361DBA&selectedIndex=2&ccid=qcF4Rl0J&simid=608047780567387800&thid=HN.6080477 80567387800

Cataract in eye

Hematoma on bird’s eye.

Hematoma on Bird's eye

Lateral canthus and nasal canthus (pl: canthi): Lateral, temporal, or outer canthus is the corner of the eye closer to the ear or back of the head. Inner, nasal, or medial canthus is close to the beak and holds the tear ducts.… ED5858268404878&selectedIndex=48&ccid=okfBFqZz&simid=608021551279114907&thid=JN.FAYmmCtht%2fmkGeRE YgEo3Q&ajaxhist=0

Lateral canthus and nasal canthus (pl: canthi):

Avian Ear structure… FCE33E3042863&selectedIndex=2&ccid=4oUoo0%2fj&simid=608042510676986302&thid=JN.Fzcviz2jyu8Fi2 7ZCW0jQA&ajaxhist=0

Avian Ear structure

Ear meatus… 91140&selectedIndex=16&ccid=3iF6RFm5&simid=608011114461596215&thid=JN.NW7p5qHUyMExUK9UYcf8wQ&ajax hist=0

Ear meatus


Nerve cells… 2E7876BB26BA93D4A99ED51F&selectedIndex=23&ccid=2oHXspTQ&simid=608007828801521408&thid=JN. bD51g31vVq471Oe6wOt

Nerve cells

Bird’s brain, cerebellum… 9F19D4C8FE56&selectedIndex=2&ccid=eGNTSpYQ&simid=608052547974594858&thid=HN.6080525479745 948

Bird’s brain, cerebellum

Avian Brain… F623D3DC55CF&selectedIndex=5&ccid=4ZtHrqvY&simid=608015091566120238&thid=HN.60801509156612 02

Avian Brain

Wry neck (torticollis)… 1F3CB74103&selectedIndex=31&ccid=%2fb0Af0EQ&simid=607989205846460103&thid=JN.ay%2bsNZBhnskRkFpyg8V T8w&ajaxhist=0

Wry neck (torticollis)


Pain and nociceptors… 89

Pain and nociceptors

B1: myelinated nerve sheath

B1: myelinated nerve sheath

B-2 Nerve Cell diagram…

B-2 Nerve Cell diagram

Nerve fiber with myelinated sheath… 809E0C45AD0&selectedIndex=1&ccid=JKFhhcy0&simid=608004298358392409&thid=JN.DAtZRiePD%2boFyvtVBnrKvg &ajaxhist=0

Nerve fiber with myelinated sheath


Major Muscles… 4C7F91E9CD472&selectedIndex=0&ccid=SfSC3Aw8&simid=608045654573318226&thid=JN.2WR3Xo22pdwrgusHln1tN A&ajaxhist=0 

Major Muscles

Foot action…+ muscles&id=B5DD55A07008F4E71F4EEAA6D1300A6C42A57CDE&selectedIndex=17&ccid=NjkzygYW&simi d=608019605602305089&thid=JN.zumpFwJVzzOlYS3bapWL2A&ajaxhist=0

Foot Action

Patagium… 433FAA1&selectedIndex=9&ccid=pVBCApTd&simid=608027705906693872&thid=JN.rl%2f6CoUp8stVtUuWISStKw&ajax hist=0


Propatag= Propatagium, Metapatag=metapatagium

  • Pt. Lg. Patagial longus tendon, Pt.Br. Bi
  • Lig: Ligament, Elast.sec:
  • Propatag: Propatagium
  • Metapatag: metapatagium
  • Tri: Tricep muscle
Propatag= Propatagium, Metapatag=metapatagium

Wing and breast muscles and erector and depressor muscles

Wing and breast muscles and erector and depressor muscles

Muscles and bones of the wing and breast

Muscles and bones of the wing and breast

Piloerection and feather fluffing…

Piloerection and feather fluffing



Uropygial gland… 0D9D5BEA2A77DCC3&selectedIndex=31&ccid=syWYFrYT&simid=608037897862316118&thid=JN.9%2fMG4 %2fxSTJ8qdMi0F96CSg&ajaxhist=0

Uropygial gland

Cockatiel uropygial gland. (Miesle)

Cockatiel uropygial gland. (Miesle)

Salt glands in a water bird… DC70D21106BAC1&selectedIndex=10&ccid=mR9Xfcfr&simid=608052092744174147&thid=JN.gMK%2fx8gj15QF0GyH5 6083w&ajaxhist=0 92

Salt glands in a water bird

Salt glands and ducts…

Salt glands and ducts


Wound Healing by First, Second, And Third Intention

First Intention (Primary Intention)

  • per primam; union of accurately coapted edges of a wound, with an irreducible minimum of granulation tissue.
  • The tissue is restored by fibrous adhesion, without the formation of granulation tissue; it results in a thin scar. In primary wound healing there is no tissue loss.

A, Incised wound is held together by a blood clot and possibly by sutures or surgical clamps. An inflammatory process begins in adjacent tissue at the moment of injury.

B, After several days, granulation tissue forms as a result of migration of fibroblasts to the area of injury and formation of new capillaries. Epithelial cells at wound margin migrate to clot and seal the wound. Regenerating epithelium covers the wound.

C, Scarring occurs as granulation tissue matures and injured tissue is replaced with connective tissue.

Wound Healing by First, Second, And Third Intention

Wound Healing By First Intention (primary wound healing or primary closure)

  • Describes a wound closed by approximation of wound margins or by placement of a graft or flap, or wounds created and closed in the operating room.
  • Best choice for clean, fresh wounds in well-vascularized areas
  • Indications include recent (<24h old), clean wounds where viable tissue is tension-free and approximation and eversion of skin edges is achievable.
  • Wound is treated with irrigation and debridement and the tissue margins are approximated using simple methods or with sutures, grafts or flaps.
  • Wound is treated within 24 h following injury, prior to development of granulation tissue.
  • Final appearance of scar depends on: initial injury, amount of contamination and ischemia (inadequate blood supply), as well as method and accuracy of wound closure; however, they are often the fastest and most cosmetically pleasing method of healing.

Wound Healing By Second Intention. (per secundam; union by adhesion of granulating surfaces)

  • WOUND HEALING occurs by adhesion of granulating surfaces, when the edges of the wound are far apart and cannot be brought together.
  • Granulations form from the base and sides of the wound toward the surface
  • There is tissue loss, as in extensive burns and deep ulcers.
  • The healing process is more prolonged than in healing by primary intention because large amounts of dead tissue must be removed and replaced with viable cells.

A, Open area is more extensive; inflammatory reaction is more widespread and tends to become chronic.

B, Healing may occur under a scab formed of dried exudate, or dried plasma proteins and dead cells (eschar).

C, Fibroblasts and capillary buds migrate toward center of would to form granulation tissue, which becomes a translucent red color as the capillary network develops. Granulation tissue is fragile and bleeds easily.

D, As granulation tissue matures, marginal epithelial cells migrate and proliferate over connective tissue base to form a scar. Contraction of skin around scar is the result of movement of epithelial cells toward center of wound in an attempt to close the defect. Surrounding skin moves toward center of wound in an effort to close the defect. Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved .

Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved

Healing By Second Intention (secondary wound healing or spontaneous healing)

  • Describes a wound left open and allowed to close by epithelialization and contraction.
  • Commonly used in the management of contaminated or infected wounds.
  • Wound is left open to heal without surgical intervention.
  • Indicated in infected or severely contaminated wounds.  Unlike primary wounds, approximation of wound margins occurs via reepithelialization and wound contraction by myofibroblasts.
  • Presence of granulation tissue.
  • Complications include late wound contracture and hypertrophic scarring

Wound Healing By Third Intention or Delayed Primary CLOSURE.

  • WOUND HEALING by the gradual filling of a wound cavity by granulations and a cicatrix (a scar resulting from formation and contraction of fibrous tissue in a wound)  
  • The method of closing a grossly contaminated wound in which the wound is left open until contamination has been markedly reduced and inflammation has subsided and then is closed by first intention.
  • The restoration of structure and function of injured or diseased tissues.
  • The healing processes include blood clotting, tissue mending, scarring and bone healing.

Healing By Third Intention (tertiary wound healing or delayed primary closure) per tertiam; union of a wound that is closed surgically several days after the injury. See also delayed primary closure

  • Useful for managing wounds that are too heavily contaminated for primary closure but appear clean and well vascularized after 4-5 days of open observation. Over this time, the inflammatory process has reduced the bacterial concentration of the wound to allow safe closure.
  • Subsequent repair of a wound initially left open or not previously treated. 
  •  Indicated for infected or unhealthy wounds with high bacterial content, wounds with a long time lapse since injury, or wounds with a severe crush component with significant tissue devitalization.
  • Often used for infected wounds where bacterial count contraindicates primary closure and the inflammatory process can be left to débride the wound.
  • Wound edges are approximated within 3-4 days and tensile strength develops as with primary closure.

Partial Thickness Wounds

  • Wound is superficial, not penetrating the entire dermis.
  • Type of healing seen with 1st degree burns and abrasions.
  • Healing occurs mainly by epithelialization from remaining dermal elements.
  • Less contraction than secondary healing in full-thickness wounds
  • Minimal collagen production and scar formation.

Granulomatous tissue in wound healing… DE248EAA4DA74&selectedIndex=116&ccid=G0m0PthJ&simid=608005350643401482&thid=JN.XRpxesDJBjiA9H%2bkR dSatg&ajaxhist=0

Granulomatous tissue in wound healing

Bumblefoot… 3DF069004FC95&selectedIndex=100&ccid=0uHqHeoT&simid=608009460890206371&thid=JN.LFbFb04wISS gv9ZcxclKNw&ajaxhist=0 95

Bummble Foot


Hepatic Lipidosis, Fatty liver disease… A480887184EB7&selectedIndex=11&ccid=ItgHfD8p&simid=607995055568389850&thid=JN.hoSwmjtpq6Bp+MKZIClY6w

Fatty Liver Disease in Birds

Bird’s kidneys (lower two lobes); small organ in center is heart.…

Birds' Kidneys


Articular gout… DDE15660E5FF6&selectedIndex=0&ccid=bPnUBPyU&simid=607987698289346423&thid=JN.fxkgS0avypQSzDwXRXC/ 0g

Articular Gout

Articular gout… FF3C4ECF904489258&selectedIndex=9&ccid=mL3iFJS6&simid=608022543359479270&thid=JN.hBRu+DW2ow0kFDiITj QA4W

Articular Gout

Visceral gout… 7B97B402809F9782E699D&selectedIndex=1&ccid=qLFg9ayG&simid=608052603831452257&thid=JN.9MkHj 3hZJeHvLnIns6E/pg

Visceral Gout in Birds

Surgical instruments

Trocar and canula; Top is trocar, bottom is cannula… B9D7B9068196&selectedIndex=70&ccid=lkjgg001&simid=608010560374309045&thid=HN.608010560374309045

Surgical Instruments