Other Names: none
Distribution: Russia, Scandinavia, and parts of eastern Europe in summer; discontinuously throughout western Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and south Asia in winter.
Size: 29-32 cm in length with a 54-60 cm wingspan. Males weigh approximately 180 g, while females weigh approximately 110 g.
Plumage: Highly variable. Females and juveniles have brownish-gray upperparts with dark flight and mantle feathers bordered with white. The breast and flanks are variably blotched with black and the underside is pale brown fading into white. In winter, the plumage is similar to that of adult males.
Adult males' legs, bill and bare facial skin are orange, with easily identifiable but variably-colored head tufts and a ruff on the long neck. These may be black, chestnut or white, with the coloring solid, striped, or irregular. The gray-brown back has an almost reptilian scale-like pattern, with black or chestnut feathers, and the breast is black blotched with white that fades into white undersides.