Male Pine Grosbeak, Pinicola enucleator montana - winter plumage
The bird order Fringillidae comprises various families of mostly seed-eating finches that are classified as the "True Finches."
Most True Finches occur naturally in the Northern Hemisphere. One family is found on the Hawaiian Islands - namely the Hawaiian honeycreepers (Drepanidinae); and another - the Euphonious finches (Euphoniinae) occurs naturally in the Neotropics (Central & South Americas, Florida [USA], Mexico). Some authorities separate the Hawaiian Honeycreepers into their own family.
Finches are generally associated with forests or well-wooded areas. However, some occur in deserts or mountains, and many have adapted well to urban living and are common visitors at garden bird feeders.
Finches are small to-medium-sized birds that measure as little as 3.8 inches (9.5 cm) up to 9.4 inches (24 cm).
Most have cone-shaped, stubby beaks; but some have long, straight or downward-curved bills.
Their plumages can be quite variable; the colors range from brownish to greenish, with varying amoungs of black. Some yellow and red markings also exist in this family. In most spaces, the females lack the bright markings of the males.
Subfamily Fringillinae – fringilline finches.
- Genus Fringilla
Subfamily Carduelinae – cardueline finches.
- Typical grosbeaks
- Mountain Finches
- Asian rosefinches
- Canaries, African seedeaters, serins and African siskins
- Oriole Finches
- Tibetan Serin
- European Goldfinch, Citril Finch and Corsican Finch
- Siskins and American Goldfinches
- Geenfinches and Desert Finches
Subfamily Drepanidinae – Hawaiian honeycreepers.
Subfamily Euphoniinae – Euphonious finches
Adult Female Pine Grosbeak - winter plumage