Friday, Nov 27, 2015

Glossary of Avian Medical Terms - Avian Health & Diseases

by Jeannine Miesle, MA
Allied Member, Association of Avian Veterinarians

Directional Terms

Regions of the Body

Prefixes & Suffices

Muscle Movement

Number Values




Directional Terms

Aborad: away from mouth of organ

Anterior: toward the front, in front of another body part, towards the head; part closest to the head.

Bilateral: both sides

Caudal: toward back end, tail or rear, opposite of cranial, back of an organ

Cephalic: head area

Contralateral: located or acting in conjunction with similar parts on opposite side of body

Cranial/Anterior: toward north wall or head

Deep: away from surface, internal

Distal: far from point of attachment, as a bone; farthest away from center of body or organ; point of origin or attachment, as a limb or bone

Dorsalt: toward ceiling or back of body

Inferior: lowermost, below or toward

Ipsilateral/contralateral: situated on the same side/opposite side of the body

Lateral: away from midline of body or body part

Medial: toward midline of body or body part

Orad: toward the mouth

Posterior/posteriad: toward the rear of body or body part

Proximal: nearest the midline or beginning of a structure; closest to the center of the body or organ, or toward the point of origin or attachment, as a limb or bone; nearer to the point of reference

Rostral, toward the front of the head or organ

Rostral-caudal; x-ray taken from below the beak

Superficial: near the surface

Superior/external: near the surface

Ventral: toward floor or belly

    Ventral-dorsal: bird on back

    Dorsal-ventral: bird on breast

Regions of the Body

Carpal: the wrist area

Crown: area behind the forehead to the occipital region

Crural: the leg area, as in crural feathering

Dorsum: the back or entire dorsal surface of the body

Flank/Side: lateral area posterior to side of body; extends back to the base of the tail

Forehead/frontal region: Area above the cere to the crown

Inguinal: lowest lateral regions of the abdomen

Jugal area: cheek area

Jugulum: ventral, midline region of throat

Nape/upper hindneck/nuchal region: dorsal surface of the neck, from the base of the skull to the thoracic vertebrae.

Occipital: the area where the spinal column meets the base of the skull at the nape

Occiput: hindhead; back portion of bird's crown; elongated feathers

Orbital: the eye sockets

Pilium: entire top of the head, the forehead, crown and occipital regions

Pectoral: the ventral chest and breast regions between the sternum and the shoulder

Prolateral: side area by neck; projecting from or on the side facing forward

Proventer region: above vent

Sacral: the region between the crests of the pelvis; the fused bones of the synsacrum

Rump/uropygial area/lower back: the region that overlies the pelvic bones, between the flanks and above the tail

Combining Forms for Systems

Skeletal system:

  • Bones: osteo, osse, ossi
  • Joints: arthro
  • Cartilage: chondro
  • Bone Marrow: myelo

Muscular system

  • Muscles: myo
  • Fascia: fasci, fascio
  • Tendons: teno, tendo, tenino

Cardiovascular system

  • Heart: cardio
  • Arteries: arterio
  • Vein: veno, phlebo
  • Blood: hemo, hemato

Lymphatic & Immune systems

  • Lymph Vessels, fluid, nodes: lympho
  • Tonsils: tonsillo
  • Spleen: spleno
  • Thymus: thymo

Respiratory System

  • Nose/nares: naso, rhino
  • Pharynx: pharyngo
  • Trachea: tracho
  • Larynx: laryngo
  • Lungs: pneumo,pneumono

Digestive system:

  • Mandible: gnatho
  • Mouth: oro, stomato
  • Esophagus: esophago
  • Stomach: gastro
  • Small intestine: entero
  • Large intestine: colo, colono
  • Liver: heap, hepato
  • Pancreas: pancreato

Urinary system

  • Kidneys: hema, reno, nephro
  • Ureters: ureto
  • Urinary bladder: cysto
  • Urethra: urethra
  • Urine: urino, uro

Nervous system/Senses

  • Nerves: neuro, neuri
  • Brain: encephalo
  • Spinal cord: myelo
  • Eyes: opthalmo, oculo, opto, opti
  • Sight: optico
  • Ears: otic, oto, auri, auro, audito, audi
  • External Ear/sound: acousto, acouso

Integumentary system

  • Skin: dermato, dermo, cutaneo

Endocrine system

  • Adeno: gland
  • Adrenals: adreno
  • Gonads: gonado
  • Pineal: pineal
  • Pituitary: pituito
  • Thyroid: thyroid, thyro

Reproductive system:

  • Testes: orcho, orchio, orchid, testiculo
  • Ovaries: ovary, oophor
  • Uterus: hysteron, metro, metri, metrio, utero



A, an, ana: without, no

Ab: away from

Ad: toward

Aer/Aero: oxygen/air

Adipo: fat

Anem: blood condition

Anti: against

Auto: self, within

Blephar: eyellids

Chezein: feces

Copr: feces

Chrome/chromo: color

Cyan: blue discoloration

Cyt/o: cell

Dys: bad, painful, difficult

Ecto: outside

Endo: inside, within

Epi: above

Eu: good, easy, normal

Ex,exo: without, out of, outside, away from

Extra: outside

Hetero: other, dissimilar

Histo: tissue


Hyper: more than normal

Hypo: less than normal

Illi: hip

Infra: below, beneath

Inter: between

Intra: within

Isch: to hold back


Leu/leuko: white

Leio/lio: smooth

Lipid/lipo: fat

Meso: middle

Meta: beyond

Myco: fungus

Myelo: bone marrow, where body makes cells

Myxo: mucous, slime

Neo: new

Oligo: scant, little

Onco: tumor, mass

Onycho: nails

Pan: all

Para: alongside, associated with, closely resembling true form, beyond, outside of, faulty, irregular, abnormal, accessory to, against, apart from

Path-, patho-, -path, -pathia,

-pathic, -pathology feeling, sensation, perception, suffering, disease, disorder

Per: throughout

Peri: around, before, during, after

Phagia: eat, swallow

Poly: many, excessive

Pre: before

Post: after

Proprio: owns own

Sub: beneath, below, nearly, almost, under, less

Super, supra: above, beyond, excessive

Thelo: nipple, thin membrane

Thymo: thymus, mind, soul, emotions

Tono:tone, tension

Trans: across

Ultra: above, increased, more than normal

Vaso: vessel or duct, circulatory

"Pertaining To" suffixes, "as in"

-ac: cardiac, heart

-al: renal, kidney

-an: ovarian, ovary

-ar: lumbar, lower back

-are: alimentary, GI track

-eal: laryngeal, larynx

-ic: enteric, intestines

-ous: skin

-tic: nephrotic, kidneys

-prandial:  a meal


-algia: pain

-ase: enzyme ending

-blast: immature stage in cellular development before appearance of definitive characteristics of the cell;

-centesis: surgical puncture to remove fluid or gas

-cyte: cell

-dynia: pain

-ectasis: distending, stretching

-ectomy: surgical procedure to remove organ

-emia: blood condition

-gram: record of

-graph: recording instrument

-graphy: written, studied about, recording procedure

-iasis: parasite infestation; name preceeds suffix, e.g., trichomoniasis

-itis: inflammation

-lith: body or mass

-lithiasis: presence of stones

-lysis: break down, loosen, decomposition

-logy: study of

-malacia: abnormal softening

-megaly: enlargement

-mycin: substance derived from bacteria

-oma: tumor, neoplasm, or specific tissue which precedes suffix, e.g., lipomas, fatty tumor

-ometry: measurement

-osis:/otic: increased number, abnormal actions, conditions or states, disorders

-osis: disease caused by organism whose name precedes it, e.g., salmonellosis

-pathy: disease or condition of

-penia: deficiency, reduced number

-pexy: suture to stabilize, e.g., gastropexy: suture to abdominal wall

-philia: attraction for, increased numbers

-plasia: formation, development, growth of tissue and cell numbers; change is size or tissue and cells; describes problems with tissue formation

-plasty: surgical repairs, e.g., rhinoplasty, repair of nose

-poietic/poiesis: formation

-ptosis: drooping, dropping down, e.g., prolapsis

-rrhage/rrhagia: bursting forth

-rrhaphy: to suture

-rrhea: flow, discharge

-rrhexis: rupture

-sclerosis: abnormal hardening

-scope: procedure to visually examine

-stomy: incision, cut into

-thymia: condition of the mind

-trophy: formation, development, increase in size of tissue

-tropic: having an affinity for or attraction to

-um: structure

-uro,-uria: of urinary tract, urine


Muscle movement

Adduction: toward the midline

Abduction: away from midline

Extension: straightening a joint, increase angle between two bones

Flexion: closure of joint angle or reduction of the angle between two bones

Hyperflexion/hyperextension: flexed or extended too far

Supination: rotating limb/body part so that the palmar surface is turned upward: e.g., upward cupped hand

Pronation: rotating limb or body part so that palmar surface is turned downward


Number Values

1: uni, mono

2: duo, bi, dyo

3: tri

4: quadic, quadro, tetr, tetra

5: quinqu, quint, pent, penta

6: sex, hex, hexa

7: sept, septi, hept, hepta

8: octo, oct, octa

9: novem, nonus, ennea

10: deca, decem, dek, deka



ac: (ante cibum) before meals

ad lib: (ad libitum) as much as desired

ANS: autonomic nervous system

bid: (bis in die) twice daily

cal: calorie

cap: capsule

cc: cubic centimeter (same as ml)

cm: centimeter

CNS: central nervous system

ED: effective dose

g: gram

gal: gallon

GI: gastrointestinal

hr: hour

ID: intradermal

IM: intramuscular

IU: International unit

IU/L: international units per liter

IV: intravenous:

kg: kilogram

LOC: level of consciousness

mg: milligram

m: meter

MED: minimal effective dose

mg: milligram

mm: millimeter

NPO: (non per os) nothing by mouth

NSAID: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

OTC: over the counter

oz: ounce

pc: (post cibum) after meals

PD: polydipsia

pH: acidity and alkalinity measurement

PM: postmortem

PNS: peripheral nervous system

PO/po: (per os) orally, by mouth

P r n: as needed

PU: polyuria

q: every

qd: every day

qh: every hour

q4h: every 4 hours

qid: four times daily (quarter in die)

qn: every night

qod/eod: every other day

qp: as much as desired

qt: quart

RBC: red blood cell

sid: once daily (q24h is more common for once daily)

sig: let it be written as (used when writing prescriptions)

soln: solution

SQ/SC: subcutaneous

T: tablespoon/ tablet/ temperature

tid: (ter in die) three times daily

tsp: teaspoon

vol: volume

WBC: white blood cell



  • AAV: Association of Avian Veterinarians
  • ABA: American Birding Assn.
  • ABC: American Bird Conservancy
  • AOU: Amer. Ornithologists' Union
  • NAS: Nat'l Audubon Society
  • WWF: World Wildlife Fund



Abdomen/Abdominal region: between the thorax and pelvis: ventral part of bird, between vent and posterior sternum; flight muscles located between belly and breast

Abdominocentesis: drawing out fluid from abdominal cavity

Absess: localized accumulation of puss; associated with infection

Acanthosis: benign overgrowth of prickle-cell layer of skin; increased thickness of stratus spinosum (layer of epidermis containing prickle cells, also called spinosa layer and prickle cell layer), due to hypertrophy of cells

Accipiter: a certain group of hawks, including Sharp-shinned, Cooper's and Northern Goshawk

ACE inhibitor: Angliotensin-converting enzyme; decreases function of this enzyme. Dilates blood vessels.

Acetabulum: hipbone socket that receives head of femur.

The cup-shaped cavity at the base of the hipbone into which the ball-shaped head of the femur fits.

Achromatosis: failure to lay down normal feather pigment

Acid: fluid containing high proportion of hydrogen ions, gives fluid sour taste; measured by pH units, 2 the most acid, 14 the least, chemical reactions in body take place at/near neutrality

ACTH: Adrenocorticotropic hormone secreted by pituitary gland which stimulates the adrenal gland to work

Acinar holocrine sebaceous glands: smallest secreting portion of the gland, releases the secretion, e.g., sebum from the uropygial gland

Acinetobacter: a milder gram neg. pathogen bacteria

Acquired disease: caused by disorder, injury, or tumor

Activated charcoal: used to increase adsorptive power (ability to have chemicals adhere to it); used as poison antidote; a highly adsorbent powdered or granular form of carbon

Active immunity: produced when immune system reacts to a stimulus (virus or bacteria) and produces antibodies and cells which protect it from the disease

Acuminate: abruptly narrows to sharp point

Acute: sharp, severe, sudden, rapid onset, short-course symptoms

Adenitis: gland inflammation

Adenocarcinoma: malignant tumor or gland-like structure arising from secretory epithelium

Adenoma: benign epithelial tumor composed of cells from glandular epithelium

Adenovirus: causes hepatitis in birds

Adhesion: band of fibers that hold structures together in abnormal way

Adipose: fatty tissue, cells that store fat, form of connective tissue

Adjuvant: substance added to killed vaccines to stimulate stronger or faster immune response by body; common ones contain aluminum compounds, drugs or chemo/radiation therapy; supplemental treatment

Adrenal cortex: large, outer, firm layer of adrenal gland

Adrenal glands: 2 small glands near kidneys; produce hormones

Adrenaline: hormone produced by adrenal glands, elevates heart and respiration rates, aka epinephrine

Adsorb/Adsorbent: solid substance which attracts other molecules to its surface

Aerobe/Aerobic bacteria:: organism that lives only in presence of oxygen

Anaerobic grows in absence of oxygen

Aeromonas: gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria; grows in water and soil

Aerophagia: gulping air, spasmodic swallowing of air, due to nervousness and anxiety, gas in intestinal tract

Aerosol: system in which solid or liquid particles are suspended in air or other gas

Afferent and Efferent nerve fibers: send impulses or signals to and from the brain/central nervous system

Aflatoxin: toxic compound composed of molds, contaminates, in stored food, causes aspergillosis

Agenesis: absence of a body part

Agglutination: sticking together of insoluble antigens such as bacteria, viruses, or erythrocytes by an antibody. Agglutination assays are used to type human blood before transfusion

Agonist: second drug which stops action of the first drug; drug which has physiological effect; has an affinity to a cellular receptor; binds to a cellular receptor for another drug without producing any physiological effects itself

Airfoil: special shape of birds' wings, produces lifting effect as it moves forward through air

Airfoil Wing: shaped with curve on top rather than beneath

Air sacs: thin-walled,  membranous sacs of respiratory system, allow unidirectional flow of air into lungs and through body; 9 air sacs: 4 paired: 2 cervical, 2 anterior thoracic, 2 posterior thoracic, 2 abdominal and 1 unpaired interclavicular. They fill the long bones of wings and penetrate muscles and bones; they interconnect with each other and lungs to form efficient one-way path for air movement during breathing; help remove waste heat generated during flight, not used to exchange oxygen and CO2

Air sac mites: small, dark mites in windpipe and air sacs, irritation leads to asphyxiation, wheezing, whistling in breathing, Ivermectin medication used

Air space: pocket of air between the shell membranes at the large end of the egg; as the developing embryo uses water and additional water evaporates from the shell, air moves into the egg from outside, expanding the air space

Airie: A nest built on the wall or side of a cliff by a raptor

Alar Bar: A contrasting line running on the front edge of the mid-wing section to the bird's body

Albino: (Leucistic) completely white animal, cannot make pigment, blue or pink eyes

Albinism: Occasional and erratic occurrence of white plumage, seen partial or complete in non-white plumage birds, caused by coloring deficiency in the feathers

Albumin: egg white, composed of water and protein; it is a protein in the blood responsible for maintenance of osmotic (water) pressure in the blood; attaches to large molecules in blood and transports them; produced by liver, aka serum albumin.

Alimentary: food or digestive tract

Aliquots: sample

Alkaline: substance with few hydrogen ions, pH over 7, e.g., lye

Allantois: membranous sac that balloons off a bird embryo's gut; solid wastes produced by the developing embryo that can't be passed through the eggshell are diverted into the allantois

Allergen: a substance, protein or non-protein, capable of inducing allergy or specific hypersensitivity.

Allo: other, deviating from norm

Allo-feeding/preening: mutual behavior; birds feed or preen each other; often done during breeding season or between bonded birds

Allogenic: birds of same species but different genetic constitution (antigenetically distinct)

Allopatric: biologically related to or taking place in different areas, esp.. in speciation in which isolated populations evolve into different species

Allopecia: feather loss; can be nutritional or behavioral; often due to adrenal disease

Alternate plumage: breeding plumage, Usually the more colorful plumage seen on an individual adult bird during, before, and after nesting season; aka alternate plumage.

Altricial: Condition describing certain young birds that, when hatched, have no feathers; their eyes are closed and they are totally dependent on their parents.

Alula: small joint on manus, like thumb, 3-4 quill-like feathers attached. Used for low-speed flight and maneuverability. Prevents stalling in flight. The feathers function like slats on planes by increasing the camber of the wing, helping bird to land and take off, supported by anterior-most digit

Alular quills: the three feathers attached to the alula originating from base of primaries; low- speed fight, landing, take-off; attached to the thumb or pollex, located at  mid-wing area.

Alular quill coverts: small feathers covering the quilt of each flight feather

Ambient : surrounding, as in air temperature

Ameliorate/amelioration: to make better

Amino Acids: any of large group of compounds containing amino and carboxyl group; building blocks of proteins; occur naturally in plants and animal tissue

Aminoglycoside: a class of antibiotics which acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis within the bacteria; results in death of the bacteria; Includes gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, tobramycin, amikacin; many not be well-absorbed by digestive system, so administered IM or topically

Amniotic membrane: a waterproof membrane in an egg's shell

Amorphous: without form, shape or boundaries, not allowing clear classification or analysis, as in amorphous urates

Amylase: digestive enzyme produced by pancreas; breaks down carbohydrates and starches; in saliva

Amyloid: containing/resembling a starch; abnormal proteins

Amyloidosis: malformed or abnormal amyloid proteins are deposited in organs or tissues and cause harm; amyloids build up in tissues either as a primary idiopathic disease or secondary chronic disease as in TB or osteomyelitis; results in cell toxicity and organ dysfunction

Amylum: chemical starch as in potato

Anabolic steroid: type of steroid which promotes tissue building, like muscle (not a corticosteroid like cortisone)

Anabolism: process which changes food into living tissue, e.g., bone growth; the constructive phase of metabolism in which body cells synthesize protoplasm for growth and repair

Anaerobic bacteria: live and grow in no or little oxygen, e.g., C. tetani  (tetanus);

Anaerobe: organism that grows without oxygen; many harmless

Analgesia/Analgesic: pain-relieving drug

Anamnesis: history of bird and current illness; details caretaking, environment, husbandry, changes

Anamnestic response: faster or greater immune response produced by animal which had previously encountered that specific antigen. Memory cells are responsible for this quick response; aka "secondary response."

Anaplasia: loss of differentiation of cells; irreversible alteration in adult cell toward more primitive cell types; a characteristic of tumor cells; change in the structure of cells and their orientation to each other.

Anastomosis: surgical union of parts, esp.. hollow, tubular parts;

  1. communication between two organs or vessels by collateral channels
  2. surgical, traumatic, or pathological formation of an opening between two normally distinct spaces or structures; surgery: the surgical union of two hollow organs, e.g. blood vessels or parts of the intestine, to ensure continuity of the passageway
  3. intestinal establishment of a connector between 2 distinct parts of the intestines
  4. natural joint: the connection or place of connection of two or more parts of a natural branching system, e.g. of blood vessels

Androgen: hormone producing male sex characteristics; e.g., testosterone

Androstenedione: steroid produced by testes, adrenal cortex, and ovaries; immunization against it increases fertility

Anechoic: unable to move, feel faint,  exhausted; in ultrasonography, the absence of internal echoes

Anemia: a decrease in number of circulating erythrocytes, below normal amount of hemoglobin in RBC, or combination of both; causes weakness and debilitation; caused by blood loss, decreased RBC production, increased RBC destruction; caused by blood trauma and GI bleeding, hemorrhage, ulcers, liver disease, GI foreign bodies

Anesthesia: loss of sensation or feeling induced by drugs

Angiography: x-ray of vessels after injecting contrasting fluid

Angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor): drug which decreases the function of this enzyme; angiotensin is a blood vessel constrictor, so ACE inhibitors dilate blood vessels

Anhedral: Downward curve of a bird's wing in flight

Anisocoria: pupils of eyes not equal size

Anisocytosis: abnormal size variation in erythrocytes

Anisodactile: three toes in front, one behind, as in perching wild birds

Ankylosis: abnormal immobility and consolidation of joint; caused by destruction of membranes that line the joint or faulty bone structure or arthritis; joint assumes least painful position and remains fixed in it, sometimes permanently

Annular: ring-shaped, circular, as in inflammation and crusting in dermatitis or ringworm

Anorexia: loss of appetite

Antebrachium: the forearm/mid-wing area, supported by the radius and ulna

Anthelmintic: substance that destroys parasitic worms (intestinal helminthes)

Anthracosis: benign deposits of coal dust in lungs

Anthropomorphism: interpreting behavior of animals in terms of human feelings, motivations or characteristics

Antibiogram: antibiotic sensitivity test

Antibiotic: natural or synthetic chemical substance that kills microorganism or inhibits their growth; treats bacterial infections; Broad-spectrum antibiotic treats wide variety of bacteria (e.g., penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin); Some treat specific groups, like Gram positive and Gram negative; some kill and some prevent bacteria from reproducing (bactericidal and bacteriostatic)

Antibiotic beads: combat musculoskeletal infections; lined with tobramycin powder

Antibody: specialized protein contained in the blood serum and formed by the b-lymphocyte white blood cell; responds to an antigen to which animal has been exposed; antibody destroys or inactivates certain foreign substances in body, especially microbes; produced by immune system as protection against infection and disease

Antiemetic: substance that prevents vomiting

Antipruritic: substance that stops itching

Antisense: having a strand of DNA complementary to other genetic material so that expression of a trait can be regulated.

Antiseptic: acts against sepsis (toxins in blood); formulated for use on living tissue to prevent or inhibit growth/action of organisms

Antiserum: blood serum from animal after immunization with particular antigen; contains antibodies specific for that antigen as well as other antigens with which the animal has previously been immunized.

Antispasmodic: relieves or decreases muscle spasms; includes smooth muscles (muscle in intestines that causes them to contract and move food through digestive system)

Antitoxin: an antibody with the ability to neutralize a specific toxin.

Antitussive: cough suppressant

Anular pad: ring-shaped vessel in the eye

Anuria: kidney failure, no urine produced

Aortic arch: curvature of aorta where it turns from its cranial path to a caudal one and becomes the thoracic aorta

Apex: narrow tip of heart at distal end

Aplasia: lack of development of a tissue or cell

Aplastic anemia: erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets not produced in sufficient numbers

Apnea: absence of breathing

Aponeurosis: a broad sheet of fibrous tissue (membrane) or expanded tendon that joins muscles together or connects muscle to bone; broad, sheet-like tendon

Apoptosis: programmed cell destruction

Appositional: placed in proximity

Apterium/Apteria: area or tract of skin without feathers or down; bare, unfeathered areas between feather tracts

Aqueous humor: fluid in eyeball, provides nourishment to interior eye, keeps eyeball inflated

Arboreal: A tree-dwelling bird

Archaeopteryx First fossilized bird known to exist.

Aerial insectivores: Bird species who feed on insects while flying

Arrhenoblastoma: ovarian stromal tumor

Arrhythmia: variation from normal heart rhythm

Arteries: thick-walled vessels that carry blood away from heart to lungs and body tissues; pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood to lungs, but all other arteries carry oxygenated blood; have muscular walls to allow contraction and expansion to move blood throughout the body

Arthritis: inflammation and swelling of joints

Arthrodesis: aka artificial ankylosis or syndesis; artificial induction of joint ossification between two bones via surgery

Arthrocentesis; puncture into a joint to remove fluid

Articular/Articulated: pertaining to a joint, having a joint, an artificial appendage, limb; joints composed of segments

Articulating:  the site of a junction or union between bones, especially one that allows free motion of the bones

Artifact: anything not naturally present but introduced by some external source; artificial, man-made product; produced by an external agent or action, such as a structure seen in a microscopic specimen after fixation that is not present in a living tissue; in biochemical blood analysis, some abnormal results are due to disease; those that aren't related to disease are artifacts. E.g., physiological changes, clinical condition of patient, blood collection method, storage and transport of sample

Artifactual hymolysis: breakdown of red blood cells due to human manipulation

Arytenoid cartilage: one of the paired laryngeal cartilages in the dorsal part of the larynx that provides attachment for the muscles that adduct or abduct the vocal folds.

Ascarids: intestinal parasite, roundworms

Ascites: abnormal accumulation of fluid in peritoneal cavity (es-site-eeze)

Ascomycetes: class of fungi containing true yeasts and dermatophytes (skin parasites)

Asepsis: condition in which living pathogenic organisms are absent

Aspergilloma: tumor-like granulomatous mass formed by colonization of aspergillus in the respiratory organs; may disseminate through bloodstream to brain, heart, kidneys

Aspergillosis: fungal infection in respiratory system

Aspergillus fumigatus: causes Aspergillosis; fungus, including molds, caused by dampness

Aspirate: to withdraw fluid from a body cavity using an aspirator or suction syringe, as in withdrawal of blood sample with syringe and needle; to inhale a fluid or foreign body into the bronchi and lungs, often after vomiting

Assay: qualitative or quantitative analysis of a substance, esp.. drug; laboratory technique used to determine the amount of a particular substance in a sample

Assimilation: conversion of nutritive material into living tissue; anabolism

Asymptomatic: without symptoms but carrying or shedding disease organisms

Asynchronous hatching: single clutch hatches over a period of several days; incubation begins when first egg is laid; Synchronous: all hatch at same time.

Ataxia: loss of coordination in the muscles, esp.. the extremities; results in staggering gate

Atelectasis: collapsed or airless lung

Atherosclerosis/arteriosclerosis: hardening and narrowing of arteries; causes heart attacks, strokes, peripheral vascular disease; fat and cholesterol plaques form in the intima of arteries; Vascular intima is the innermost coat of a blood vessel.

Atonic: lack of muscle tone

Atopy: hypersensitivity: an allergy with symptoms produced upon exposure to an antigen; inhalant allergies, e.g., pollen or dust; hypersensitivity reaction involving pruritus with dermatitis

Atoxoplasma: liver enlarged, dark area under skin of abdomen, bloody diarrhea, weight loss, dehydrated, depression, sudden death, "Black spot."

Atresea/altresic (choanal): the congenital absence of or pathological closure of an opening, passage, or cavity; occlusion or absence of a normal body opening or tubular organ

Atrial fibrillation: atria (chambers of heart that receive blood) contract rapidly, irregularly and independently of the ventricles (chambers that pump the blood). Decreases the efficiency of the heart and its ability to move blood.

Atrial flutter: atria contracts rapidly, irregularly, and independently of the ventricles; this decreases the efficiency of the heart and its ability to move blood.

Atrium/atria: two chambers of the heart that receive blood; right atrium receives blood from body, left receives oxygenated blood from lungs

Atrophic rhinitis inflammation of nose and mucous membranes resulting in degeneration of tissue from nerve damage

Atropine: smooth muscle relaxant, pre-anesthetic

Atrophy: decrease in size or complete wasting of organ, tissue, muscle, cell; suggests reduced innervation

Attenuated: Weakened; an attenuated virus is one that has been changed and will no longer cause disease; used in modified live vaccines

Auditory meatus: ear opening

Auricula: ear area

Auricular coverts/feathers: ear-patch, soft, loosely-webbed feathers on side of head to protect ear; overlap the ear, called coverts; birds have no external pinna but have slight thickening of skin around ear

Auscultation: listening through stethoscope to body sounds for diagnosis

Autocthonos flora; normal gut flora, takes 3-4 weeks to develop in chick

Autochthonus: found in original locality; as in disease

Autogenous: self-produced, self-generated; substances generated in the body

Autogenous vaccine: suspension make from material obtained from lesions of animal to be vaccinated. Used for prevention, amelioration, or treatment of specific infectious disease

Autoimmune disease: body becomes intolerant of its own cells, produces an immunogenic response against self-antigens; One organ is affected, or many tissues

Autonomic nervous system: controls bodily processes and involuntary activity, such as the action of the heart, respiratory and digestive systems, and reflex actions

Avascular: lacking blood vessels in body tissue

Avian: Pertaining to birds

Avulsion: tearing away of a structure or part

Axilla/axillary: region under the wing, between the body and the wing; wing-pit; underside base of wing extending to ventral wing lining; muscles in the area important to flight

Axillary feathers/Axillars: Feathers located at the underside base of a bird's wing;

the long, stiff covert feathers covering the ventral base of the wing in the "armpit" or axillary area.

Azotemia: increased nitrogenous waste products in blood as a result of kidney insufficiency/disease

B-Cell: or B-lymphocyte. Produces antibodies; in birds, produced and generated in the Bursa of Fabricus (the name "B- cells" comes from the name of this organ); a white blood cell lymphocyte, formed in bone marrow in mammals and present in blood and lymph, that creates antibodies in response to a specific antigen;  In mammals, immature B- cells are formed in the bone marrow.

Back/interscapular region or dorsum: the dorsal area from the

neck to the rump, between the wings

Bacteria/bacterium: one-celled organism that may cause disease; round, rod-shaped, spiral, or filamentous, unicellular or non-cellular bodies; often aggregate into colonies; may exist as free-living organisms in soil, water, organic matter, or as parasites in live bodies of plants; some produce disease; most perform necessary functions such as digestion, fermentation (breakdown of carbohydrates by microorganisms.)

Bacteremia: bacteria in blood

Bacterial loading: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment; normal avian skin contains fewer bacteria than mammals, less need for cleansing

Bactericide/bactericidal: kills vegetative bacteria but not mycobacteria or spores

Bacteriostatic: inhibits growth or reproduction of bacterial organisms without necessarily killing them or their spores

Bacteriophage: virus that infects only bacteria

Bacteriuria: bacteria in urine

Barb: parallel feather rays branching out from each side of rachis

Barbicel: hooked projection extending from and interlocking with the barbules of a feather

Barbules: hooked branches extending from each side of feather barb, fasten adjacent barbs together

Barium Study: procedure, pet swallows barium or given as enema, x-ray exams to locate disorder of esophagus, stomach or intestines

Baroreceptor: sensory nerve terminal that is stimulated by changes in pressure, as those in blood vessel walls; reflexes triggered by change in pressure, usually refers to blood pressure

Barraband Paralysis syndrome/spastic leg paralysis; parrot disease of small number of birds in aviary; presents as sudden onset of paralysis of both legs, from mild weakness to whole-limb extending stiffly behind the bird, clenched toes; bird's general health not affected, eats and behaves normally; cannot balance, is ataxic in more severe cases, walks on hocks or with beak; cause unknown, but calcium, vitamins A, B1,2,6, and E deficiency suspected esp.. in all-seed diets

Bars: Rows of distinctly colored feathers running across the bird's body

Basal: outer edges of a bill or the outer primaries

Basal cell carcinoma: most common skin cancer; rarely metastasizes or kills, but causes significant destruction and disfigurement by invading tissues; abnormal, uncontrolled growths or lesions that arise in basal cells (deepest layer of epidermis—outmost layer of skin); look like open sores, red patches, pink growths, shiny bumps or scars; caused by UV exposure

Basic plumage: Plumage attained by the prebasic molt

Basilic vein: in upper arm near bicep muscle

Basophil: a leukocyte that cleans up debris

Basophilia: abnormal increase in basophils in blood

Basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies: white blood cells going to the nucleus of the cell; the bodies are round, oval, or irregularly shaped, in cytoplasm and nucleus, as in viral diseases, e.g., poxvirus

Beak (bill): composed of the maxilla (upper) and mandible (lower); movable in parrots due to elastic zones in facial bones (craniofacial hinge); rasp-like ridges (tomia) run transversely inside maxilla for cracking nuts; dermal and epidermal layers contain calcium and keratin; bill-tip organ, sensitive and used for feeling environment; allows bird to discriminate between food and other particles; nerve endings for mandible are in channels that can be seen as white dots in black beak; never cut them

Beak Overgrowth: Overgrowth of the maxilla or mandible; usually the maxilla (upper beak.) Some birds need their beaks trimmed;  Other birds keep their beaks in shape by eating hard foods, grooming, climbing, chewing on wood, and rubbing the beak on a slightly abrasive surface. An overgrown beak can be the result of health problems including trauma, developmental abnormalities, nutritional imbalances, polyomavirus-like infection (finches), or liver disease (especially in budgies).

Beard: line of feathers hanging from a male turkey's breast

B-cells or lymphocytes: immune system cells that mature in the Bursa of Fabricus in birds

Benign: mild illness or non-malignant tumor; benign tumors have well-defined edges and grow slowly

Beta blockers: Heart meds which block beta receptors in heart; beta receptors receive signals to increase heart rate; if rate is too fast or uneven, beta blockers help stabilize the rate and rhythm of contractions

Beta-carotene: plant pigment which converts to Vitamin A

Beta-lactamases: Enzymes produced by some bacteria which inactivate certain types of penicillin; makes the bacteria resistant to them

Bib: colored region seen below the chin of a bird

Bile: yellow-green fluid produced in liver, stored in gallbladder in ratites, stored in small intestine in psittacines; emulsifies fats

Bile acid test: only specific test for liver disease in birds; compounds produced by liver are bound to amino acids and excreted in the bile in small intestines to aid in digestion of fats; Most are reabsorbed in small intestine, enter the portal system and are taken up by liver to be recycled; increase in bile acids indicates poor liver function

Biliary duct: related to bile or transport of bile; affecting a bile duct or the system of ducts in the liver

Bilirubin: orange-yellow pigment in bile that is a product of erythrocyte breakdown; normally excreted with urine or feces; buildup in body causes jaundice; released by liver in bile.

Biliverdinuria: dark green bile in urine indicative of liver disease; increased excretions of it indicate hepatitis; caused by obesity and high-fat diet

Biocide: an agent that kills all pathogenic and non-pathogenic living organisms, including spores; includes insecticides and any compound toxic to living things

Biopsy: removal of small piece of living tissue for microscopic exam;

  • Incisional biopsy: removal of a piece of a tumor or lesion for examination
  • Excisional biopsy: the removal of an entire tumor or lesion and a margin of surrounding tissue for examination.
  • Needle/fine needle biopsy: the insertion of a sharp instrument (needle) into a tissue for examination. All examinations under microscope.

Bipedal: stands on two legs

Bleaching: lightening of the plumage colors caused by exposure to sunlight

Blepharitis: infected or inflamed eyelid

Blepharospasm: spasm of eyelids resulting in complete closure of eyelids due to pain, e.g., scratched cornea

Blood: fluid that supplies body tissues with oxygen, nutrients, and various chemicals. Transports waste products for removal from body by various organs; plays an important role in immune and endocrine systems. Formed in the bone marrow

Blood cells: new cells generated every 4-6 weeks; low blood count due to viral infections; high blood count due to stress, disease

Blood feather: new feather has venous and arterial blood supply; thick, purple appearance; as feather matures, blood supply recedes

Blood fractionation:  Blood fractionation is the process of separating blood into its component parts. This is typically done by centrifuging the blood. The resulting components are: a clear solution of blood plasma in the upper phase (which can be separated into its own fractions;  the buffy coat, which is a thin layer of leukocytes (white blood cells) mixed with platelets in the middle; and erythrocytes (red blood cells)

Blood gases: e.g., oxygen or CO2 in blood

Blood glucose levels: high levels (over 900 mg/dl) cause diabetes mellitus; Below 150 life-threatening

Blood sampling: taken from jugular vein or ulnar vein, not toe clip

Body cavities: hollow spaces that contain and protect internal organs:

  • Cranial: protects brain
  • Spinal: contains spinal cord in spinal column
  • Thoracic or chest: protects heart and lungs between neck and diaphragm
  • Abdominal: contains major digestive organs between diaphragm and pelvic cavity
  • Peritoneal: hollow space within abdominal cavity between parietal (walls of the) peritoneum and visceral peritoneum

Pelvic: space that contains the reproductive and some excretory systems (bladder and rectum), and organs bounded by pelvic bones

Bolus: a  lump; round mass of medicinal material, larger than a pill; large pharmaceutical preparation or to give something rapidly; a second, larger dose of medication; also soft, round mass of chewed food, ball of leftover material regurgitated after digestion of prey

Bones: Connective tissue which supports the structures of the body

  • long bones: consist of shaft, two ends, and a marrow cavity In mammals; in birds the long bones are pneumatic .Femur and humorus
  • short bones: cube-shaped bones with no marrow cavity (carpal and tarsus bones)
  • flat bones: thin, flat bones as in pelvis
  • pneumatic bones: filled with air as in frontal bones of head; in birds, the long bones and some rib bones
  • irregular bones: unpaired bones, as in vertebrae
  • sesamoid bones: small bones embedded in a tendon, as in the patella or kneecap. 

Bone tissue in birds:  cancellous (spongy) bone; This tissue, found in the interior of bones, is characterized by a honeycomb arrangement of trabeculae (columns) and spaces. This honeycomb structure provides support and strength to the bone.

Bone callus: localized hyperplasia of the horny layer of the epidermis due to pressure or friction; an unorganized network of woven bone formed about the ends of a broken bone; it is absorbed as repair is complete (provisional callus) and is ultimately replaced by true bone (definitive callus); in osteotomy, bony and cartilaginous material form a connecting bridge across a bone fracture during repair; happens within one to two weeks of surgery

Bone Marrow: soft tissue composed of blood vessels and connective tissues found at center of bones; primary function is blood cell production. Only long bones and some ribs are pneumatic and are filled with air and not marrow. The rest are filled with marrow.

Bone Marrow dysplasia: Myelodysplastic syndrome; pre-leukemia; a diverse collection of hematological medical conditions that involve ineffective production (or dysplasia) of the myeloid class of blood cells; not a single disease but group of diseases that affect blood cell formation; in all forms of MDS, a bone marrow problem leads to low levels of blood cells circulating in the bloodstream

  • Anemia: low level of RBCs
  • Leukopenia: low level of WBCs
  • Thrombocytopenia: low level of platelets

Bone marrow suppression: the inhibition of cells of bone marrow which produce erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets; a result of certain drugs, such as anti-cancer agents

Bone fractures:

  • avulsion: broken bone in which the site of muscle, tendon, or ligament insertion is detached by a forceful pull
  • callus: bulging deposit around the area of a bone fracture that may eventually become bone
  • closed fracture: no open wound in the skin, simple fracture
  • comminuted fracture: broken bone that is splintered or crush into multiple pieces
  • compression fracture: broken bone produced when the bones are pressed together
  • Oblique: broken bone that has an angular break diagonal to the long axis
  • Open or compound fracture: broken bone in which there is an open wound in the skin
  • physeal fracture: bone that is broken at the epiphyseal line or growth plate
  • spiral fracture: broken bone in which the bone is twisted or spiraled apart
  • transverse fracture: bone that is broken at right angles to the axis or straight across the bone

Booted: not divided into scales (tarsus); the tarsus of certain birds; covered with a continuous, horny, boot-like sheath; having an undivided tarsus covered with a horny sheath

Botulism, type E: the type that targets waterbirds who feed on fish

Brachial: the upper arm; the area supported by the humerus

Brachygnathia: abnormal shortness of the mandible; results in maxilla that protrudes

Bradycardia: abnormal slowing of heart rate

Bradypnea: abnormally slow respiration rates

Brain: an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate animals; there are three major divisions of the bird's brain: the optic lobe (chiasma), medulla oblongata, and olfactory lobe

Branchus/Bronchi: large air passages of lungs

Breast: chest or pectoral region; located between the chin and the belly, defined by keel bone

Bronchitis: inflammation of bronchial passages

Brood: combined nestlings in nest; sitting on/hatching young; sheltering to keep warm and for protection

Brood parasites: Species of birds who deposit their eggs in the nest of other birds, to be fed and raised by other families.

Brood patch: area over breast that becomes thickened, vascular and featherless during brooding period; transfers body heat from hen to eggs

Brood reduction: feed most vigorous, biggest ones first; strongest survive in low food- supply years, all survive in good years

Bucky technique: set up instrument in line with 2 marks for radiography

Buffy coat: reddish-gray layer of blood consisting of white blood cells and platelets observed above packed red cells in centrifuged blood; the superficial layer of yellowish or buff coagulated plasma from which the red corpuscles have settled out

Bulbar: bulb shaped, pertains to medulla oblongata

Bumblefood (pododermatitis) lesions on bottom of feet due to incorrect perching and rough perches

BUN: Blood Urea Nitrogen; blood test that estimates kidney function

Bursa/Bursal: fibrous sac that acts as a cushion to ease movement in areas of friction and where a tendon passes over bone., e.g., elbows, shoulder, knee

Bursa of Fabricus:, a specialized organ that is necessary for the immune system. The bursa is an epithelial and lymphoid organ that is found only in birds. It is attached to the large intestine. The bursa is active in young birds and atrophies after about six months.

C-Fiber: an unmyelinated nerve fiber of the autonomic and sensory nerve systems; They are afferent fibers, conveying input signals from the periphery to the central nervous system; unmyelinated nerve fibers have a slow conduction velocity

Cachectic/cachectin: protein released by activated macrophages as an immune system defense; when it is overwhelmed it causes cachexis, or toxic shock

Cachexia: general ill health with emaciation, usually occurring with cancer, chronic infection, disease; extreme weight loss

Calcaneal tendon: Achilles tendon, tendon on tibiotarsus

Calcified: hardening of tissue through the influx of calcium, usually a result of chronic inflammation

Calidridine: group of closely related sandpipers, primarily of the genus Calidris

Callosity: thickened or enlarged area

Callus: bulging deposit around bone fracture; may turn to bone

Cancellous bone: (trabecular or spongy bone); a type of osseous tissue that forms bones. Has a higher surface area than compact bone (other type of osseous tissue), but is softer, weaker, less dense, less stiff; occurs at ends of long bones, proximal to joints and within interior of vertebrae. Cancellous bone is highly vascular and contains red bone marrow where hematopoiesis (production of blood cells) occurs; lighter, less strong bone that is found in the ends and inner portions of long bones

Candida: genus of yeast; causes disease; infection is candidiasis

Candling: Process of shining a light through an egg to check embryo development; view of egg for fertility

Cannula: metal tube inserted into body to draw off fluid or deliver medication; tubular shaped, contains trocar (sharp, pointed instrument for piercing)

Canthus/canthi: corners of the eye; inner, nasal, or medial canthus holds the tear ducts, temporal, outer, or lateral canthus is closer to the ear

Cap: top of head, color can differentiate between similar but different species

Capillaria/capillariasis: infestation by nematode (internal parasitic worm)

Carcinogen: causes cancerous growths in living tissue

Carcinoma: malignant cancer arising from epithelial tissues, e.g., skin, intestinal tract, bladder

Cardiac failure: weakness, anorexia, tachypnea (rapid breathing), dyspnea (shortness of breath), coughing, abdominal distension due to hepatomegaly and ascites, diagnosis determined by arrhythmia or murmur, x-ray

Cardiac infarction: localized area of necrosis caused by interrupted blood supply to heart

Cardiomegaly: enlarged heart

Cardiomyopathy: heart muscle disease; not of valves or congenital defect; leads to decreased function with no known cause

Cardiopulmonary: of heart and lungs

Cardiovascular system: of heart, blood, blood vessels

Carina: keel bone, sternum, or breast bone. Bone that protrudes  from the chest  

Carotenoids: pigments in the feathers that are derived from the bird's diet; produce bright yellow, bright red, orange; occur mostly in flight feathers, back and breast plumage

Carpometacarpus: fused bones of the hand (manus) joint

Carrier: animal that harbors infectious organism e.g., virus, bacteria, parasite. Animal appears healthy, but can transmit organism to others by direct contact or release of organisms into environment in stool, urine, respiratory secretions Non-shedding carrier: harbors disease but doesn't show symptoms and is not contagious; as in latent infection

Cartilage: gristly connective tissue, more elastic than bone; used in flexible portions of skeleton.

Carina or keel; the breastbone

Caruncle: small, fleshy, comb-like tissue on turkey's forehead

Caseous: having the appearance of cheese, one of the forms of tissue death (necrosis); e.g., xanthomas

Cast/casting: things that are shed, e.g., skin feathers, can cause renal disease, leftover parts of prey thrown up by raptors, owls

Catabolism: breaking down of muscle or other tissue due to malnutrition or starvation; destructive form of metabolism involving release of energy and resulting in true excretion products

Cataract: cloudiness of lens of eye, reducing vision, giving eye pearly appearance

Catecholamine: organic compound, chemically related neurotransmitters, as epinephrine and dopamine, that have effects on sympathetic nervous system; Some catecholamines are produced naturally by the body and function as key neurologic chemicals;  catecholamines play an important role in the body's physiological response to stress. Their release at sympathetic nerve endings increases the rate and force of muscular contraction of the heart, thereby increasing cardiac output and constricting peripheral blood vessels, resulting in elevated blood pressure, high blood glucose levels, hyperglycemia, lipids; affects metabolism

Celiac: the abdomen or stomach areas

Cell-mediated immunity: a result of special lymphocytes directly killing the foreign invader, or T-Cell lymphocytes releasing special chemicals which activate macrophages to kill the invader; compare with "humeral immunity"

T-cells are responsible for cell-mediated immunity and directly attack the invading antigen; cell-mediated immunity is most effective against viruses that infect body cells, cancer cells, and foreign-tissue cells

Cell mitosis: cell division

Cellulitis: diffuse inflammation of solid tissue, redness, swelling, pain, loss of function in affected area

Celum/Coelum: principal body cavity of trunk; contains peritoneal, pericardial and pleural sacs

Centesis: surgical puncture to remove fluid or gas for diagnostic purposes or for treatment

Central Nervous System: (CNS) portion of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord

Central sensitization: Increased responsiveness to normal or subthreshold afferent input of nociceptive neurons in the spinal cord and brain due to amplification and facilitation of synaptic transfer from the peripheral nociceptor to dorsal horn neurons in the spinal cord.

Central Tail Feathers: primary feathers at the center of the tail

Centrifuge: machine that rapidly spins liquid samples and separates out particles by their density

Cephalic edema: fluid in the head

Cere: fleshy area enclosing nares, smooth, featherless; highly vascularized; found mostly in birds of prey, pigeons and parrots.

Cerebellum: 2nd largest part of brain,  located on brainstem; controls coordination, coordinates muscle activity for smooth movement

Cerebrum: largest portion of brain, sits in front part of cranial cavity; performs higher cognitive functions, receives and processes stimuli, initiates voluntary movement, stores information

Cervical: area and structures of the neck

Cervicocephalic: area of bones of the neck close to the anterior part of head

Cestode: tapeworm parasite

Chalaza/chalazae: gelatinous, milky white, stringy coils of albumen that surround and protect egg yolk; visible at either end of yolk as twisted cords; attached to far ends of eggshell and form a suspension system for the yolk that allows it to rotate throughout embryonic development; stabilizes yolk and keeps it from floating against the upper shell's surface. Keeps the germinal disk in the upward position so it remains next to the heat produced by the incubating parent above

Cheek: between lore, eye, auricula and mandible

Chelate/chelator/chelation: Medication which binds  a substance to a metal, thus helping the body to remove it

Chemosis: swelling and congestion of the eye conjunctiva due to edema or circulatory problems; includes excessive secretions and abnormal blood-filled tissue; caused by Chlamydia Psittici

Chest: front of body containing keel and major flight muscles

Chick: the fledglings of certain bird species.

Chin: below beak; does not protrude

Chlamydia/chlamydiophilia psittaci/Chlamydiosis/parrot fever/ornithosis: bacterial organism responsible for psittacosis; gram neg. pathogen; zoonotic, systemic; signs: diarrhea, ocular and nasal discharge

Choana/choanae/choanal slit: slit in hard palate of mouth, connects nasal passages/cavity with oropharynx; numerous projections or papilla found around edge of choanal slit; glottis fits snugly into the slit when bird closes its mouth to close connection from nostrils to windpipe; the cleft in the hard palate of birds  

Choanal papillae: several tiny whitish projections that line the choanal slit; should be sharp; blunting or absence attributed to hypovitaminosis A or respiratory illness; purpose is to block debris from going up into the sinuses

Cholesteatoma: cyst-like mass with lining of stratified, squamous epithelium filled with debris (cholesterol); occurs in brain and CNS.

Cholesteatosis: fatty degeneration due to cholesterol esters (Esters have a very sweet fruity smell.)  Naturally occurring esters are found in fruits. 

Chondroitin: a molecule that occurs naturally in the body; the major component of cartilage -- the tough, connective tissue that cushions the joints; helps keep cartilage healthy by absorbing fluid (particularly water) into the connective tissue. It may also block enzymes that break down cartilage, and it provides the building blocks for the body to produce new cartilage.

Chorioallantoic/chorionic membrane (CAM) forms during embryonic development; lines inner egg-shell surface; has capillaries through which oxygen and CO2 gases are exchanged between embryo and outside air.

Chorioretinitis/choroid retinitis: inflammation of the choroid (thin pigmented vascular coat of eye) and retina of eye; signs: floaters, blurred vision, pain/redness, sensitivity to light, excessive tearing

Choroid/choroidea: middle, vascular coat of eye, between sclera and retina; contains connective tissue and blood vessels; supplies nutrients to inner parts of eye

Christalloid: resembles a crystal; solution containing electrolytes which diffuse into all body fluid compartments; e.g., Ringer's solution and dextrose in water

CBC: Complete blood Count

Chronic: illness of long duration; slow progression of symptoms

Chronic Pain: pain that lasts several weeks to months and persists beyond the expected healing time and is non-malignant in origin

Chronicity: state of being chronic

Chronic superficial keratitis: chronic eye condition; blood vessels grow across cornea (clear surface of eye); cornea looks hazy and red; eventually takes on dark pigment; aka "pannus"

Cicatrix/cicatrices: fibrous scar tissue left after a wound has healed

Ciliary muscle: striated muscle that controls eyelashes (celia)

Circovirus: causes PBFD

Circumscribed: surrounded by a boundary or is within a certain space

Circumscribed pustule: contained in a limited area

Cirrhosis: liver disease caused by replacement of damaged cells with connective tissue; severe scarring can eventually cause liver failure; caused by hepatic lipidosis (fatty liver disease)

Cline: a situation in which a species of birds is spread out over such a large distance that birds at one end will not associate with the others

Clinical: medical matters e.g., history, signs; also means bird is presenting symptoms

Clinical diagnosis: cause of disease based on physical/visual signs

Clinical study/trial: planned exam of effectiveness of new drug or treatment; as compared to control group not receiving the treatment

Cloaca: common tube-like chamber or structure through which feces, urine, urates, fluids, eggs pass; above vent

Cloacal compartment: divided with 3 poorly-defined compartments: Copradeum, Urodeum and Proctodeum

Cloacal prolapse: inversion of the cloaca due to muscle weakness, internal tissue is turned inside out; usually from chronic egg laying

Cloacal kiss: copulation; male bird copulates many times to make sure he is father of at least some of the young in his nest

Cloacal papilloma: gross lesion; red proliferative mass commonly originating from just inside the rim of the cloacal opening.

Cloacapexy: incision made in abdomen to suture cloaca to caudal border of sternum (abdominal wall) after prolapse

Cloaca bursa (Bursa of Fabricus): lymphoid gland of cloaca, believed to function in

disease resistance, closing or disappearing as bird ages

Cloacal circlet/anal pteryla: the two rows of feathers arranged in concentric circles around the cloaca/vent

Clonic/clonus: alternating involuntary muscle contractions in rapid succession, upper motor nerve disease

Clostridium Perfringen: type birds get; anaerobic, spore-forming bacteria, causes enteritis; both giardia and clostridium cause malabsorption of Vit. E

Clotting factors: protein components in blood which help it clot; clotting is complex mechanism; result of chain of chemical reactions and work of platelets; requires Vit. K

Clutch: complete set of eggs belonging to the female

Cnemial: relating to shin or shin bone

Coagulation: blood clotting

Coagulopathy: a condition affecting the blood's ability to form a clot; defect in body's mechanism for blood clotting

Coaptation: joining or adjustment of parts to one another, as broken


Cob: male swan

Coccus/cocci: spherical microorganism;  any bacterium that has a spherical, ovoid, or generally round shape. It is one of the three distinct bacterial shapes, the other two being bacillus (rod-shaped) and spiral-shaped cells; gram-positive, stain purple

Coccidium/coccidia/Coccidiosis protozoan intestinal parasite, lays oocysts (eggs)

Coccidiostat:drug that  inhibits growth of coccidia

Cock: male bird

Coliforms: coliform bacillus; various species of bacteria inhabiting colon

Collagen: fibrous, insoluble protein that forms part of the supportive framework of skin, bone, ligaments, cartlage, tendons; also in vitreous humor of eye as stiffening agent;

Collar: upper part of neck, behind crown, aka hindneck or nape

Collimate/collimation/collimated beam: radiographic term for adjusting accurately the line of sight

Colloidal solution: semi-solid suspension; uric acid secretion; glue-like solution used to manage shock; increases osmotic pressure and volume of plasma

Colonial: birds of the same species who build multiple nests in colonies

Comb: fleshy skin on rooster's crown

Commensal relationship: symbiotic relationship in which an organism lives on or within another organism, derives benefit from it, without harming it; e.g., egrets foraging in fields among cattle or other livestock. As livestock graze they stir up insects which egrets feed upon

Comminuted fracture: bone fracture in which the separated parts are splintered or fragmented, divided into small parts, powdered or pulverized; at least 3 bone pieces involved

Commissure/commisural point/gape: line formed by meeting of maxilla and mandible; hinge where the two meet; psittacines able to move both but most birds only move mandible

Communal roost: sleeping place for gathering of birds

Compensation: making up for defect of function or structure; e.g., counterbalancing;

Complete Blood Count/CBC: Count of total number of cells in a given amount of blood; includes erythrocytes and leukocytes; tests for abnormalities in blood

Compressed: flatttened from side to side

Computerized Tomography Scan (CT or CAT scan): radiological imaging procedure that uses x-rays to produce "slices" through body; computerized axial tomography.

Concha/conchae: turbinate bone in nose; spongy bones in nasal passages; includes sinuses; hollow spaces in head where infection may clog it with liquid, mucous, abscess, or debris

Concretion: solid, hard mass, lith

Condyle: articular prominence on bone, rounded projection of a bone that anchors muscle ligaments and articulates with adjacent bones; e.g., occipital area (back of head), knuckle,  or elbow; smooth surface area at end of a bone, forming part of a joint

Confluent: flowing together, meeting, combining from one

Congeners: something of same type; birds that are related to one another because they belong to same class, group, or type; e.g., animals in same genus

Congenital: present at birth; e.g., genetic defect

Conjunctiva: thin membrane which lines inside of eyelids and covers part of eyeball

Conjunctivitis: watery eye discharge, swollen lids, red conjunctiva; paresis, weak jaw tone, mostly in lutinos, inherited, non-infectious

Connective tissue: adds support and structure to body part; holds organs in place and binds parts together

Types: dense connective tissue such as bone, cartilage, tendons and ligaments; loose connective tissue,  blood

Conspecific: birds of the same species

Contact call: sound produced by bird that informs nearby birds of caller's location; seeking response by mates or bonded birds to other birds or humans

Contour feathers: the feathers that cover most of the bird, not including the flight feathers; arranged in rows

Contrast agents: substance given orally or injected that makes affected tissue easier to identify on x-ray. E.g., barium

Contusion: bruis; injury to underlying tissues without breaking skin; gives skin greenish color

Cooperative breeding: More than two birds of the same species feeding young birds from one nest

Copralith/fecalith: hard fecal mass

Copradeum: top chamber of cloaca, largest of the three; rectal opening into the cloaca; holds fecal matter until defecation

Copraphagia: eating feces

Coracoid bone: extra bone in shoulder; acts as strut to counterat pressure of downbeat of wings

Cornea: clear part of front of eye, lets light in

Cornified: having a keratinous or horny covering

Cortex: outer layer of bone or organ as opposed to the inner layer; more brittle in birds than mammals

Cortical blindness: Blindess caused by damage to the brain's cortex, not the eye; occurs with ABV/PDD

Cortical Bone: hard, dense, strong bone that forms the outer layer of bone; also called compact bone

Corticosteroids: natural steroid: hormone produced by adrenal gland and involved in metabolism and immune response; also produced synthetically; their action allows many biochemical reactions to proceed at optimum rates; Important to almost every function of cells and organs;

Two groups:

  • Glucocorticoids –regulate protein, carboydrate, and fat metabolism
  • Mineralocorticoids—regulate electrolyte balances

Costal: ribs or rib cage

Cortisol: the main glucocoritcoid: hormone naturally produced by adrenal glands; sythesized as hydrocortisone, used to reduce inflammation

Countersinging: singing of one bird in direct response to another bird among the same species singing

Courtship displays: performace to attract mate, maintain pair bond, stimulate breeding behavior; includes hopping, flying in a pattern, wings out and body low, female tail-lifting

Coverts (tectrix/tectrices): coverts; smaller feathers covering large wing and tail feathers; partly cover flight feathers; streamlines bird's profile, reduces frictional drag in flight

Cranial: pertaining to the head

Cranial nerves: birds have 12 pairs of cranial nerves which leave the cranium through special holes in the structure; each innervates a specific area of the body

Craniofacial hinge: hinge at cere allows maxilla and mandible to move at same time; flexible connection between skull bones which permits upper jaw to be raised as same time as mandible is depressed; well developed bwtween the nasal and frontal bones in psittacines

Creche: gathering of hatchlings in a nesting colony, tended to by different adult birds

Crepitant/crepitus/crepitation: cracking sensation that is felt and heard when broken bones move together; making a cracking crinkly, or grating feeling or sound under the skin, around the lungs, or in the joints. Crepitus in soft tissues is often due to gas, most often air, that has penetrated and infiltrated an area where it should not normally be (for example, in the soft tissues beneath the skin). Crepitus in a joint can indicate cartilage wear in the joint space.

Crepitant rale: cracking sound made during inspiration in lung diseases

Crepuscular: birds that are active at twilight hours and before sunrise

Crest: tuft of feathers on head; larger in males; increases visibility to predators and potential mates; females evaluate potential mate by his crest; the more elaborate the crest, the better the mate

Crissum: feathers in a triangular area on undersurface of bird between vent and pygostyle; can tell whether a bird is adult or juvenile by cruissum; adult females have dusky edge to most of the feathers there; juvenile females have nearly pure white feathers

Crissom/undertail coverts, or circumcloacal region: the loose feathers that surround the cloaca, including the undertail coverts that cover the ventral base of the tail.

Crop/ingluvies: outpouching of esophagus between cervical and thoracic parts of esolphagus; oriented transversely across neck

Crop ilius: obstruction

Crown: top of head, holds the crest

Cruciate ligament: cross-shaped

Crural feathers: on femoral tract which covers outer surface of thigh in a diagonal strip from knee joint upward toward pygostyle; rest of leg contour feathers are included within the crural tract; In some large birds and in birds with heavily feathered legs, an additional metatarsal tract is identified, covering tarsometatarsal area of lower leg

Crust: area of dried fluid or cells on skin; may be blood, serum, pus, or medication

Cryptic: a bird's plumage that is able to blend into the local surroundings or habitat

Crystalloids: crystal-like, forms solutions that can pass through semi-permeable membranes as in dialysis; opposite of colloid which does not dissolve and does not form a true solution; given for shock, contains electrolytes and non-electroytes which will diffuse in all body compartments; e.g., Ringer's solution and 5% dextrose in water

Culmen: uppermost central ridge of maxilla; no specific function; males' culmens are larger

Culture: propagation of microorganisms or living tissue cells in media conducive to growth or reproduction

Curette: long, thin surgical tool with cupped head for scraping material from cavity walls; also used to cleaning nares and to perform other procedures for birds

Cutaneous: relating to skin

Cyanosis: blue-gray or purple discoloration of skin and/or mucous membranes; caused by deficiency of oxygen and excess of carbon dioxide in blood; due to heart disease, obstruction of airways, or certain drug overdoses

Cycle: the yearly cycles a bird will have to mature before developing adult plumage

Cygnet: young swan

Cyst: abnormal mass under skin surface; abnormal sac-like structure lined with cells which produce a liquid, thick material

Cystadenomas: benign cystic tumor or neoplasm that exhibits glandular differentiation: cystoma plus adenoma

Cystectomy: removeal of urinary bladder

Cystitis: inflammation of urinary bladder

Cystocentesis: procedure to obtain uncontaminated urine sample; needle is passed through abdomen into bladder, urine is collected in a syringe

Cytokines:  any of a group of small, short-lived proteins that are released by one cell to regulate the function of another cell, thereby serving as intercellular chemical messengers. Cytokines effect changes in cellular behavior that are important in a number of physiological processes, including reproduction, growth and development, and injury repair. However, they are probably best known for the roles they play in the immune system's defense against disease-causing organisms; compounds produced by certain cells; act as messengers to control the action of lymphocytes and other cells in an immune response

Cystopexy: fixing urinary bladder to abdominal wall

Cytoplasty: repair of uninary bladder.

Cystotomy: surgical incision into urinary bladder

Cytology: study of microscopic appearance of cells, esp. to diagnose abnormalities and malignancies; often refers to microscopic examination of a sample taken from skin or lesion to find cause for the condition; studying cell structure, origin, function, and pathology

  • Exfoliative cytology: scraping of cells from tissue for examination under a microscope.

Cytopenia: low levels of one or more types of blood cells in bloodstream

Cytoplasm: thick substance surrounding the nucleus of a cell; is the physical basis of all living activities in the body

Cytoplasmic: refers to the protoplasm surrounding the nuclus of a cell

Cytosis: act of destroying cells

Cytotoxic: poisonous to cells

Dabbling: waterfowl's method of using the bill along the surface of the water to screen for food

Deaminate: to remove the amino group from a compound

Debilitation: weakening of body

Debridement: removal of foreign matter and devitalized (dead) and contaminated tissue from a wound

Decompensation: inability of diseased organ to compensate for its defect; failure of body to make up for defects of function or structure

Decubital ulcer: pressure or bed sore; produced by local interference with circulation; usually occurs over a bony prominence, such as sacrum, hip, heel, shoulder, or elbow; caused by excessive/prolonged pressure produced by weight of body or limb

Decubitus: any position taken by lying in bed

Decurved: a bill that is curved downward toward tip, like a curlew's

Decussation: bands of nerve fibers crossing, passing between centers on opposite sides of CNS, X-shaped

Deficiencies: lack of important nutrients:

Definitive diagnosis: scientific identification of cause of disease

Dehiscence: bursting open, as of contents; incision dehiscence: opening of an organ to discharge its contents; parting of the lips of a surgical wound

Dermatitis: inflammation of the skin from any cause, resulting in a range of symptoms such as redness, swelling, itching, or blistering

Dermatome: area of skin supplied with afferent nerve fibers by a single dorsal spinal root; A dermatome is an area of skin that is mainly supplied by a single spinal nerve; The surface of the skin is divided into specific areas called dermatomes, which are derived from the cells of a somite. They are necessary for assessing and diagnosing the level of spinal cord injury. These cells differentiate into the following 3 regions:

  1. myotome, which forms some of the skeletal muscle
  2. dermatome, which forms connective tissues, including the dermis
  3. sclerotome, which gives rise to the vertebrae.

Dermis/corium: means "skin." Layer under the epidermis; composed of blood and lymph vessels, nerve fibers, contains connective tissue and feather shafts

Desertion: abondoning the nest

Desiccation: drying out

Desquamation: to remove, scale or peel off in small pieces, esp. skin; can be naturally occurring

Detritis: (cellular) particulate matter produced by or remaining after the wearing away or disintegration of a substance or tissue; dead particulate organic material

Diabetes mellitus: metabolic disease caused by failure of pancreas to produce insulin (glucogen for birds), a hormone that allows blood sugar (glucose) to be taken up by cells that require it to function

Diagnostic feathers: the particular feathers that determine the species of the bird

Diaphysis Dia'physis/diaphy'sial: shaft of long bone, between the ends, to grow between

Diarrhea: abnormally fluid-laden fecal discharge; result is poor absorption of water, nutritive elements and electrolytes

Diasthesis: unusual susceptibility or predisposition to a disease

Dichromatism: the normal occurrence of two different colorations in the same species due to neither sex nor age

Differential diagnosis: all the possible diseases that could be causing the symptoms

Differential WBC: Percentage of different types of white blood cells in a sample

Differentiated cells: marked or formed differently from other cells; distinct; changed from a generalized form into a form specialized for a tissue, organ or other body part

Diffuse: not limited or localized, spread widely, as in multiple tumors

Digitegrade: walks on toes rather than full foot. Birds are among the digitegrade species.

Digits: the four toes in birds, numbered from 1-4 beginning with the hallux toe.  

Dihedral: wings held in V-shape profile while in flight/gliding

Dilated cardiomyopathy: heart enlarges and heart muscle thins

Dimorphis/dimorphic: physical characteristics which differentiate male from female; distinct difference in plumage or color

Diphtheritic lesions: lesions in membranes which resemble human diphtheritic lesions; formed in air passages, esp. throat, necrosis of superficial layers of mucosa combined with inflammatory exudate on mucosa

Discrete: separate, unconnected parts, not spread out, limited to one area as in an individual tumor

Disease: a condition resulting in symptoms and not caused by physical injury

 Types of:

  • Congenital: present at birth
  • Hereditary: genetically transmitted from parent to offspring
  • Anomalous: deviation from normal
  • Idiopathic: of unknown cause
  • Iatrogenic: produced by treatment or physician error

Disease states: Series of events in a disease incident:

  • Peracute: extremely or violently ill, very acute
  • Acute: very ill. Very sudden onset and rapid change, short course, acute exacerbation of a chronic condition
  • Subacute: recent onset, somewhat rapid change, poorly defined state between acute and chronic
  • Chronic: on-going, indefinite, virtually no change, long-term condition
  • Intermittent: occasionally

Disseminated: scattered, distributed over an area

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC): hemorrhagic disorder that occurs following the uncontrolled activation of clotting factors and fibrinolytic enzymes through small blood vessels; results in tissue necrosis, bleeding, death; often a result of MRSA

Distal Band (see Subterminal Band)

Distal or superior umbilicus: area by the afterfeather.  Proximal or inferior umbilicus is the part going into the feather follicle.

Distraction display: shown by the parent bird to attract predator away from nest.

Distress: Condition in which stress negatively affects biologic functions critical to the animal well-being (acute anxiety or pain).

Diuresis: increased urination caused by excessive intake of fluids or a drug; unusually large urine output

Diurnal: birds that feed during daylight hours.

Diverticulum: circumscribed pouch or sac occurring naturally, usually in reference to the colon

Diverticulum in bones: air sacs that extend into the long bones, making them pneumatic or air-filled

Down feathers: soft, fluffy feathers whose barbs do not cling together; they trap more air and provide extra insulation; young birds have natal down before molting into their juvenile plumage; protects skin from moisture and pathogens

Drake: male of some species, usually waterfowl

Drift: polyethyline intermedullary bone fixation appliance; also viral drift--gentotypes

Dry eye: Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca (KCS); occurs due to inadequate tear production; includes thick, yellowish discharge from eye

Dump nesting: laying eggs in nests of other birds, usually the same species

Duodenum: top part of small intestine from pylorus to liver; accepts bile and pancreatic fluids then joins large intestine

Dyschezia: difficulty defecating, constipation

Dyscoria: abnormal shape or form of pupil or in the reaction of two pupils

Dyscrasia: unspecified blood disorder; morbid general state resulting from presence of abnormal material in the blood; usually seen with disease affecting blood cells or platelets. Present with a WBC of over a million.

Dysgerminoma: solid, malignant ovarian neoplasm derived from undifferentiated germinal cells

Dyspharyx: proventricular worm/parasite

Dysphagia: difficulty swallowing or eating

Dysplasia: abnormal growth of cells, tissues, organs

Dyspnea: difficult or labored breathing

Dystocia: inability to pass egg

Dystrophic/ dystrophy: defective growth in size of an organ, tissue or cell; due to faulty or inadequate nutrition or development; weakening degeneration or abnormal development of muscle; muscle atrophy

Dysuria: difficult/painful urination

Ears: facial discs, auricular meatus; rounded areas on cheek

Ear canal: tube that connects external ear with ear drum

Ear coverts: feathers covering the birds ears (see auricular coverts)

Ear drum: tympanic membrane,  divides inner from outer ear; prevents infection from reaching inner ear; vibrates to amplify sounds

Eccymosis/eccymotic: swelling due to blood extravasation (escape into tissues); bruising, swelling on skin due to hemorrhage

ECG/EKG: Electrocardiogram; printout of analysis of electrical activity in heart; electrocardiography: graphic recording of the electrical actiivity of the heart; allows heart muscle action to be studied

Echocardiogram: image produce by performing ultrasound of heart

Echogenic: capable of generating or reflecting soundwaves, as in tests

E-coli: common gram-neg pathogen in birds; enteric bacteria; normal in some birds in small amounts; produces toxins/disease

Eclipse plumage: non-breeding plumage

Ectoparasites: flies, ticks, fleas, lice; inhabit exterior of host's body

Ectropion: abnormal distortion of eyelid so that lower lid turns out, causing a pocket in which tears collect and run out

Edema/ edematous: excessive accumulation of serous fluids in an organ,body cavity, or tissues; causes swelling (hyperemia)

Efficacy/Efficacious: effectiveness; extent to which a drug causes the intended effects

Effusion: lymph or blood present in body cavities or tissues; a result of inflammation

Egg: ovum before and after fertilization; contains embryo, yolk, albumin

Egg callosity: egg tooth; Callosity: thickened or enlarged area

Egg laying (chronic) and egg binding: caused by obesity, low calcium levels, chilling, lack of exercise, infection in oviduct; bird straining to pass egg; erect posture, swollen abdomen, egg palpable near vent; most common in hens with no mate

Egg tooth: short, pointed, calcareous (contains calcium carbonate) structure on tip of maxilla that develops shortly before hatching; used to break out of shell; sloughs off or is reabsorbed within a few days after hatching

Electrocautery/Electrocauterize/Ectrocauterization: electric instrument with very hot tip applied to a tissue to make incision, remove a mass, or stop bleeding

Electrolytes: ions that are electrically charged and can be found in many sports drinks; a substanced in a solution; exists in body fluids

Electromyography (electromyogram): records electrical activity of muscle cells; records strength of muscle contraction; caused by electrical stimulation

Electrophoresis: process used in separation of proteins and nucleic acids; used to study diseases in which there are altered serum and plasma proteins

Elemental formulas: high caloric, protein, fat, and carb content; high osmolality, vary from requiring some digestion to requiring little to none (monomeric); formula is predigested (proteins hydrolyzed)

ELISA-A: fluorescent antibody serology test that detects diseases such as psittacosis, ABV/PDD; enzyme on a substrate pulls out blood serum; positive birds shed the organism only about 12% of the time, so neg does not rule out Psittacosis

Emaciation: loss of flesh through disease or starvation; severe weight loss resulting in 50% of normal weight

Emarginate: notched tail feather

Embarrassment: difficulty in function due to disease; failure or impairment of functioning; to interfere with or impede an organ or part;, e.g., fetal or respiratory embarrassment; distress; physiological difficulty of some kind

Embolic: the lodging of an embolus which may be a blood clot, a fat globule, or a gas bubble in the bloodstream; can cause a blockage.

Embolism: sudden blocking of artery by a clot; brought to site by blood flow

Embryo: developing bird in egg

Embryonic development: biochemical processes, programmed by DNA, that takes place within the egg through which a fertilized egg develops the specialized tissues and organs

Emesis: vomiting

Empirical: derived from or guided by and provable by experience or experiment alone, without using scientific method or theory, esp. as in medicine; evidence that can be observed

Emulsion: mixture consisting of a solid or semisolid dispersed in a liquid

Encephalitis: inflammation of brain, often caused by virus

Encapsulated: enclosed by a protective coating or membrane, e.g., encapsulated bacterium, organ structure; fatty, cartilaginous or fibrous structure enclosing a part

Encephalopathy: degenerative brain disease; severe hepatic insufficiency, causes excitability, tremors, compulsive walking, head pressing, apparent blindness, coma, convusions, death

Endemic: found in a specific area or species; present in a community or among a group; birds that are only found in certain states or countries; disease prevailing continually in a region

Endocarditis: inflammation of endocardium

Endocardium: serous membrane that lines the cavities of the heart

Endocrine gland: ductless gland which produces an internal secretion that is discharged directly into the blood or lymph and circulated to all parts of the body

Endogenous: produced or synthesized or caused by factors within the organism or system

Endoparasite: invertebrate or protozoan parasites that inhabit interior of host's body or skin's surface

Endophthalmos: sunken eye; backward displacement of eye in bony socket; caused by traumatic injury or developmental defect

Endorphins: natural, opioid-like chemicals that are produced in the brain and that raise the pain threshold

Endoscope/endoscopy: long, flexible tube with lighted mirror and lens system attached (cannula);  passed through body to view organs; uses fiberoptics; surgical procedure

Endosteal/Endosteum: tissue lining of medullary cavity of a bone

Endothelium: the cellular covering that forms the lining of the internal organs, including the blood vessels

Endotoxin: bacteria confined within body of bacterium and freed only when the bacterium disintegrates

Endotracheal tube: placed into trachea to allow oxygen and gases to be breathed into lungs

Enteral: pertaining to intestines

Enteral feeding: tube feeding through skin into intestine; allows nutrition to be forced into intestine

Enteric bacteria: normal or pathogenic flora in intestines

Enteric nervous system: (ENS) or intrinsic nervous system is one of the main divisions of the autonomic nervous system and consists of a mesh-like system of neurons that governs the function of the gastrointestinal system

Enteritis: intestinal inflammation/infection, esp. small intestine

Enterobacteria: gram neg pathogen, mild

Enucleate/enucleation: to remove without cutting into the organ or mass; e.g., eyeball or tumor

Enveloped virus: virus is covered by a protein capsid; can cause persistent infections; doesn't live long outside of host; can change rapidly to evade immune system

Enzootic: diseases afflicting all animals in particular area

Enzyme: protein produced by cells which causes chemical changes in other cells but are not changed themselves; regulate production of chemical substances in body

Eosinophil/eosinophilic: granular white blood cell stained with eosin, elevated with parasites, allergies, tissue inflammation

Eosinophilia: more than usual number of eosinophils in circulating blood

Ependyma: epithelial membrane lining the ventricles of brain and canals of spinal cord

Ependimoma: a glioma (tumor arising from neuroglia) arising in or near ependyma

Epicardial: tissue around the heart

Epidermis: top layer of skin

Epidemic: disease attacking many in community simultaneously; introduced from outside

Epidemiology: study of factors involved in diseases in a community

Epiphora: excess tears in lachrymal glands due to obstruction of gland

Epiphysis/epiphyte: end of long bone, wider than the shaft, all cartilage, separated from shaft by a cartilaginous disk

Epistasis: stoppage of secretion or discharge; e.g., nose bleed, hematoma, tumor or swelling containg blood

Epistaxis: nose bleed

Epithelium/epithelial: membranous tissue composed of one or more layers of cells that covers most internal and external surfaces of body and organs; layer between an organism and its tissues or organs and their environment (e.g., skin cells, inner linings of lungs or digestive organs, outer lining of kidneys); encloses and protects a body part; forms essential part of the sense organs

Epithelial surfaces: skin, mucosal linings of internal organs

Epithelial tissue: Covers internal and external body surfaces  Types:

Mesothelium: tissue covering internal organs and blood vessels

Endothelium: covers serous membranes, such as peritoneum

Epitope/antigenic determinant; determines which antigen is attacking the body; part of antigen that is recognized by the immune system, specifically by anitbodies, B-cells, T-cells.

Epizootic: diseases that spread quilckly among animals

Equilibrium: state of balance, controlled by inner ear

Erector muscles: raise feathers for cooling, shaping

Ergot poisoning: fungus in cereal grains

Erythema: redness of skin caused by blood clogging in small blood vessels

Erythrocyte: (avian) red blood cell consisting largely of hemoglobin and carrying nearly all the oxygen containing in the blood; manufactured in bone marrow

Eschar (es'kar): hard crust or scab as from a burn; deep cutaneous slough such as from a thermal burn, corrosive action or decubitus ulcer

Esophagus: connects to crop then travels through bones at top of keel to connect to proventriculus

Esters: chemical produced by the reaction of an acid (usually organic) and an alcohol with the elimination of water;  an organic, often fragrant compound

Etiology: origin or cause of a disease

Euthanasia: causing death humanely and painlessly to end suffering

Eutocia: ease of delivering eggs

Eutrophic (eutrophia): state of good nutrition

Euvolemia normal blood fluid volume

Evert: turn out, as eyelid

Eviscerate: remove or expose internal organs, esp. after unsuccessful surgical closure of abdomen

Excise: to remove surgically

Excoriate/Excoriation: injury to surface of body caused by trauma, e.g., scratching, abrasion, chemical or thermal burn; superficial abrasions which remove some of the skin; caused in animals by rubbing or scratching pruritic skin; removal of skin surgically

Excrete: to separate and eliminate from an organ; expel from blood or tissues as in waste matter

Excretory urography: radiographic imaging of urinary tract for diagnosis

Excursions: range of movement regularly repeated in performance of a function; e.g., excursion of the jaws in chewing, thoracic movements

Exfoliative cytology: scraping of cells from tissue and examination under a microscope.

Exocrine: secreting through a duct, e.g., exocrine gland

Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency: not enough fluid being secreted through pancreatic duct

Exophthalmos/exophthalmia or proptosis: protrusion or bulging of the eyeball from the orbit due to papilloma or disease, esp. hyperthyroidism, injury, sinus infection, thyroid disease or trauma

Exostosis/exostoses: benign new growth projecting from bone surface and capped with cartilage because of excess calcium forming;  Exostoses can cause chronic pain ranging from mild to debilitatingly severe, depending on the shape, size, and location of the lesion. It is most commonly found in places like the ribs, where small bone growths form, but sometimes larger growths can grow on places like the ankles, knees, shoulders, elbows and hips. Very rarely are they on the skull. They normally form on the joints of bones and can grow upwards. For example, if an extra bone formed on the ankle, it might grow up to the shin.

Exotic bird: one that is tropical or non-native to the United States

Exotoxin: toxin or poison produced by bacterial microorganism and excreted into its surrounding tissue

Exsanguinatie/excanguination: pulling/sucking blood to drain the blood; bleed to death; deprive of blood

Extant: still in existence

Extensor rigidity: muscles contract and straighten the limb, preventing it from relaxing

Exteriorize: to move an internal organ to the outside of the body

Exterpated: killed off or destroyed from a certain region, state or country

Extracellular: occurring outside a cell

Extracranial: occurring outside the skull

Extrahepatic: occurring outside the liver

Extraluminal/intraluminal: lighting from without (extra), from within (intra); intraluminal fluid lights up body masses

Extrapair paternity: young in the nest fathered by a bird other than resident male

Extravasation: discharge or escape, as of blood, from a vessel into the tissue

Extrinsic: existing outside the anatomical limits of a part, e.g, certain muscles or nerves

Extrinsic mass: existing on or outside a part

Exudate/exude: material that has escaped from blood vessels and is high in proteins, cells or solid materials derived from cellular matter coming from a part, e.g., nose, uropygial gland; discharges slowly, accumulation of fluid, protein, and cellular debris in a cavity; matter penetrates through vessel walls into adjoining tissue or outside; production of pus or serum coming out slowly, oozes out through small openings or pores

Exuviate: cast off, molt

Eye: receptor organs for sight; birds' eyes larger than humans' proportionally and larger compared to skull; they take up about 15% of head mass and weight; lighter compared to human skull

Eye crescents: contrasting white crescents seen above and below the eye of the bird

Eye deformity (congenital): incomplete separation of eyelids, narrow eyelids, mostly in lutinos, surgery not usually successful

Eye line: line of feathers just in front of and behind the eyes; extends back from the posterior angle of eye

Eye ring: pale ring of feathers encircling the eye; narrow, not clear from a distance; separates the eye from the face feathers; not all birds have them

Eyebrow: arch of feathers growing overtop the bony arch of each eye, similar to human eyebrow; supercillium or superciliary line

Eyelid: one upper and one lower lid; lower more moveable;

Eye stripe: see "supercilium"

Fall molt: aka winter plumage, fall plumage or basic plumage; birds lose some feathers and take on heavier down feathers

False negative/positive: diagnostic test reads incorrectly

Fascia: layer of condensed connective tissue which covers, unsheaths, supports, or binds together internal body parts or structures; continuous with other connective tissue structures such as ligaments, tendons, periosteum

Fasciitis: inflammation of fascia

Fat deposits/pads; found in abdomen of birds, not breast; yellowish deposits cranial to vent under the skin; sometimes found cranial to pygostyle

Feather: keratinous structure made of protein and covering the body; lightweight and strong, protects skin, enables flight, used to attract mate, waterproofs body, prevents pathogens from entering through skin

Feather numbering: Feathers are numbered on the tail from the center feather out and on the wings from the center primary out

Feather cysts: swellings on body wall, wings or tail; caused by feather growing in or under skin instead of out of follicle; genetic or due to injury to feather follicle, malnutrition, parasites, viral or bacterial infections; treatment is surgery to remove feather follicle; most often seen in macaws and canaries

Feather Duster disease: a rare mutation in budgies; impaired growth, short life span; feathers grow in curls without stopping

Feather dystrophy:

Clinical signs: parakeratosis, hyperkeratosis, feather defects (stress marks), scaliness of apteria, pruritis, persistent feather sheaths


  • Malnutrition: causes hyperkeratosis, results in feather loss due to hypovitaminosis A and loss of pigmentation, and parakeratosis from pantothenic acid deficiency
  • Iodine deficiency: results in hypothyroidism
  • Heavy endoparasitic infection: retards absorption of nutrients
  • Vitamin deficiencies, esp. Vit. B

Feather Follicle: group of cells in the skin from which feathers develop

Feather sheath: thin, cylindrical tube of keratin surrounding and protecting developing feather; breaks open when feather matures to let feather unfurl

Feather structure: Feathers are composed of starch, nucleic acids, protein, keratin, and lipids.

Feather tracts: pterylae, areas of skin where follicles lay

Fecal Floatation: test that floats parasite or worm eggs so they can be seen under a microscope; feces mixed with chemical solution, spun in centrifuge, and the fluid lying above the feces at the bottom of the test tube is drawn off, stained, and examined

Fecal sac: the sac enclosing the feces of nestling birds; the parent removes it and keeps the nest clean

Fecal smear: feces smeared on slide; determines parasites, bacteria, fungi, protozoa

Feces: solid body waste from intestines

Feet: located at terminal part of legs; most have four toes; hallux (first toe) points backwards, others forward; 2,3, 4 digits counted from inside of the foot out; in parrots,Two front toes, two back

Femoral: pertaining to or located in femur/thigh

Fibrin: white, insoluble fibrous protein essential to blood clotting

Fibrinogen: protein in blood plasma that converts to fibrin; fibrin threads form a meshwork for the basis of a blood clot; fibrogen is formed in the liver

Fibroblast: immature fiber-producing cell that is capable of differentiating into a cell that can produce collagen, bone or cartilage

Fibrocartilage: articular, covers joint surfaces of bone; e.g., meniscus: curved fibrous cartilage found in joints, cushions forces applied to joint

Fibrocartilaginous callus: allus that forms between broken bones

Fibroma/fibroid: tumor composed of fully developed connective tissue

Fibronecrotic lesion: lesion covered with thick, yellow membrane composed of exudate and firmly attached to the tissue beneath

Fibrosarcoma: sarcoma (cancer) arising from collagen-produced fibroblasts

Field marks: visible signs on a bird which will allow ease of identification

Filamentous: long and slender; microbiology; very long strand of similar cells joined end-to-end, as in some bacteria and algae

Filarial/Filariasis: parasitic tropical disease; referring to, infected with, transmitted by or caused by thread-like nematodes (roundworms)

Filoplumes: hair-like feathers with no vein and small tuft at top; resembles a bristle feather topped by a down feather

Fine-needle aspirate: suction applied to hollow needle inserted into tissue; a core of tissue is withdrawn to culture or examine microscopically

First generation: medications developed from an earlier form of medication; developed from original form of the drug; second generation meds are adaptations of the first generation, etc.

First intention wound healing (primary union): occurs when surgical incision or cut heals immediately; restoration of tissue continuity occurs directly, without granulation; union of skin edges heals quickly; includesuse of sutures

First Pain: The initial well-localized and generally brief pain produced by a noxious stimulus produced by high-threshold nociceptors.

Fissure: cracklike sore

Fistula: narrow passage or duct formed by disease or injury, as one leading from an abscess to free surface, one cavity to another, or opening made into hollow organ, e.g., eyeball or bladder, for draining; suppurative inflammation; tube-like pasage within body tissues, usually between two internal organs or from organ to body surface; Some created surgically; permits passage of fluids, pus, secretions, or saliva

Flagella: whiplike appendages on certain bacteria and protozoa

Flange (oral): brightly colored enlargements around base of neonate's beak; extends from corners of mouth and tapers toward tip of beak; supplied with tactile nerve endings; parent feeding young touches flange, mouth springs open, bright colors help parents place food properly

Flank: visible sides of the bird seen below the wings

Fledge: the act of a young bird leaving the nest

Fledging/Feldgling: baby bird out of nest but unable to fly or feed itself without parents; process of leaving nest; premature fledging: baby leaves nest before it is developmentally ready, usually dies

Flight feathers: remiges, rectrices, tertials and secondaries;  remiges, long, stiff feathers attached to bones of wing; two groups: primaries and secondaries; involved in propelling and steering; attached directly into periostium (bone); rectrices (tail feathers);  body feathers originate in skin

Floaters: birds that do not hold territories or form pair bonds but travel to areas containing territorial birds, waiting to take over territory or nest, copulate with a paired bird

Flocculating agent: substance/chemical capable of penetrating another substance; results in one being suspended in other

Flock: a group of similar birds

Flora: (intestinal) bacteria normally found in intestines

Fluroscope/fluorscopy: instrument with which x-ray images of the body can be viewed directy on the screen; used to monitor motility of GI tract or joint or organ systems in movement

Focal limited to small area or volume

Fomite: a pathogen-contaminated object that can transfer a pathogen from host to another person/animal; e.g., a computer keyboard used by multiple people

Foramen: a natural opening or cavity in a human or animal body, usually one through which blood vessels and nerves pass through bone

Forehead/frontal region: area above eyes and cere

Foreign antigens: antigens coming from the environment instead of inside the body

Foreneck: throat, front of neck; jugulum (throat patch)

Fossa: a hollow, pit, or groove in a part of the body such as in a bone

Foveas: particularly sensitive spots in the retina

Fracture: break in a bone caused by trauma, twisting, weakening of bone structure due to disease or injury

Frank blood: bright red blood in stool from hemorrhoid or anal fissures; on surface of stool, not digested;

Black, tarry stool is digested blood

Free radicals: natural byproducts of oxygen metabolism that may contribute to development of chronic diseases, e.g., cancer,

heart disease

Friable: readily crumbled, brittle, easily reduced to tiny particles, fragile; e/g., damaged skin

Friction rubs: found upon ascultation; rubbing together of 2 inflamed surfaces, e.g., pruritic friction rubs; in birds, lung and air sac noises and friction rubs could indicate air sacculitis

Frontal shield: An extension running from the upper beak to the forehead

Fulguration: surgical destruction of tissue, e.g., excising feather cysts

Fundus: the bottom or base of an organ; the part of a hollow organ farthest from the opening; e.g., retina of eye

Fungicide: chemical that kills fungi

Fungus/fungi: low forms of plant life; widespread in nature; unable to form protein and carohydrates; larger than bacterial cells; nucleus and vacuoles can be seen through microscope; major groups are yeasts and molds; infect body, skin, feather follicles; treated with oral and/or topical antifungal

Furcula: fused clavicle or collarbone; aka wishbone; spring-like connection between shoulder joints; clavicles fuse ventrally to form furcula; fused at the ends to form a V-shape

Furosemide is a loop diuretic (water pill) that prevents the body from absorbing too much salt, allowing the salt to instead be passed in the urine.

Gaggle: flock of geese or sound given by a goose

Gallinaceous birds: pheasants, chickens, turkeys, waterfowl

Gamete: one or two cells, sperm or ovum, whose union is necessary in sexual reproduction to initate development of new individual; term also used for parasitic organisms

Gametocyte: cell that produces gametes; an oocyte or spermatocyte

Gander: male goose

Ganglion/ganglia: a knot or knot-like mass; general term to designate a group of nerve cell bodies located outside centeral nervous system

Ganglioneuritis: sensory ganglionitis or ganglioneuritis: rare problem in which sensory dorsal root ganglia as well as sensory nerve endings connected to them are damaged; the result of inflammation caused by underlying illnesses; results in spontaneous random movements of limbs and proprioceptive defects; poor prognosis; can be halted if found before irreversible damage occurs

Gape: the mouth lining or margin at the corner where the two mandibles intersect (commissure); also to gape is to open the mouth wide, stretching the commissure. This is done when bird is thirsty or has something in its throat.  

Gapeworm: roundworm that lodges in respiratory passages; rare in pet birds; most often seen in exotic galliforms

Gaping: begging behavior of young birds, begins shortly after hatching; widely opened mouth; adult birds can gape for air

Gastric lavage: flush out the crop

Gastroenteritis: inflammation of lining of stomach and intestinal track; symptoms are vomiting and diarrhea

Gavage feeding: through a tube directly into the stomach or crop

Genetic disorder: inherited, defective genes

Genotypes: group of organisms having the same genetic construction; viruses can have multiple genotypes or mutations

Aka viral drift

Genus: level of classification between "species" and "family"

Germinal spot/disk: light-colored site on egg yolk where embryo will eventually develop

Germinative layers: earliest stages of development, deepest layers, e.g., in skin

Giardia/giardiasis /Giardia lamblia: the parasite causing intestinal infection; reproduces in small intestines; leads to malabsorption of Vit. E; Oocytes (dropped cysts) eaten by other birds and passed on; exists in filth, causes diarrhea, weight loss, malabsorption deficiency. Symptoms: feather picking, self-mutilation, screaming, cow-pie feces, passing undigested foods, failure to thrive, strong malodor

Gizzard: organ in the digestive tract of birds who eat seeds whole; same as the ventriculus in psittacine family, only stronger

Gland: secretes material used elsewhere in the body The only true glands of the integument in birds include the uropygial gland, sebaceous glands of the ear canal that secrete a waxy material, and glands of the vent that secrete mucus.

Glaucoma: increased pressure within the eye, caused by accumulation of fluids; leads to blindness

Glenoid cavity: pit or socket; a depression in the ventral angle of the scapula for articulation with the humorus

Globoid: global or round shape, having globules

Globulins: simple proteins that are insoluble in pure water

Glomerulitis: inflammation of nerves or blood vessels of kidney

Glomerulonephritis (GN): aka glomerular nephritis; renal disease; inflammation of glomeruli or small blood vessels in kidneys

Glomerulophathy: set of diseases affecting the glomeruli of the nephron (kidney)

Glomerulus/glomeruli: area of blood filtering in the kidney

Glottis: opening to windpipe at upper part of trachea, closes during swallowing, allowing the food to pass into the esophagus at base of tongue

Glucocorticoid: hormones produced by adrenal gland to regulate protein, carbohydrates and fat metabolism; glucocorticosteroids stabilize cell membranes as they function in treating allergic reactions

Glucogen: in birds, pancreatic hormone needed for glucose to be used for energy in cells; birds do not produce insulin

Glucogen resistance: blood glucose level remains higher than it should

Glucosamine: substance the body makes and uses to form new cartilage

Glucose: simple sugar in foods, esp. fruit; found in blood, major source of energy

Glucosuria/ glycosuria: glucose in the urine

Glycogen: storage form of glucose in the body

Going light: losing weight

Goitogens: goiter-producing substances

Gonads: primary sex organs, testes and ovary

Gonydeal spot: reddish spot around the gonydeal expansion on the lower mandible of a gull

Gonys (go'nis): central midline ridge running from the tip of the lower beak back to the anterior end of the head; along the tip of the lower mandible of bird's bill, at junction of the two joined halves; esp. prominent in gulls

Gorget: area of iridescent feathers found about the head and neck of most male hummingbirds and some females

Gosling: young goose

Guano: bird excrement in the crystalline form of surplus nitrogen known as uric acid

Gout: result of kidney malfunction; urates built up in blood and are deposited into joints (articular) and around heart, liver and organs inside body (visceral). Nitrogen is major waste product in urates, give it white, pasty look;

  • Symptoms: depression, lameness, joint swelling and redness, white nodules on joints
  • Cause: old age, advanced kidney disease, severe dehydration
  • Diagnosed by urine and blood tests
  • Treatment: fluid and electrolyte therapy; allopurinol dissolves urates and aids in excretion; poor prognosis

Graduated: feathers successively shorter from center to outside as in  tail and longer from body to alula (wings)

Gram: measure of weight; 28 grams=1 ounce; 454 grams=1 lb

Gram's stain: method of differential staining of bacteria; gram-positive bacteria stains violet, gram-negative stains red or pink; staining quality is based on structure of cell wall surrounding the bacteria. This structure of the cell wall influences which antibiotics will kill the bacteria

Granulated tissue: having a grainy texture, forms during wound healing;

Granulation/Granule: division of a hard substance into small particles (granules); the formation in wounds of small, rounded masses of tissue during healing

Granulocyte: any cell containing prominent grain-like structures in its cytoplasm

Granuloma: a tumor-like mass or nodule consisting of actively growing capillary buds, fibroblasts and white blood cells; caused by chronic inflammation/infectious disease/invasion of a foreign body, or by healing process of large, gaping wound; marked by formation of granulations associated with infection; can't be spread to other birds or mammals

Granulomatous dermatitis: Rare, genetic, chronic disease; immune system phagocytes malfunction, leading to ongoing, severe infection; white cells accumulate in epidermis, esp. around follicles;

  • Signs: red/flesh- colored palpable small lesions on face; may be scales, pustules, pruritis
  • Treatment: antibiotics,e.g., metronidazole, erythromycin, doxycycline

Granulomatous tissue in wound healing: new connective tissue and tiny blood vessels that form on the surfaces of a wound during the healing process. Granulation tissue typically grows from the base of a wound and is able to fill wounds of almost any size.  

Granulosa cell tumors: ovarian, stromal cell tumor originating in solid mass of granular cells that surrounds ovum in developing follicle; caused by excessive production of estrogen

Greater secondary coverts: feathers overlying the bases of the secondaries; in some birds the primary coverts are completely covered by them

Guild: flock of birds, including different species, which share the same habitat

Gular region: throat or upper foreneck; the area from the lower mandible to the breast bone

Gular sac or pouch:located below lower mandible; allows some species to hold their food;  bare skin on throat and base of mandible; in some birds inflates during courtship ritual

Habitat: enviroment in which bird species lives

Half life: time required for the level of substance in body (e.g., drug or toxin) to be reduced by half

Hallux: short hind toe, known as first toe, smaller of the back toes

Hamartoma: benign, tumor-like nodule composed of overgrowth of mature cells and tissues; resembles a neoplasm; it grows at the same rate as the tissue it is a part of. They occur in many different parts of the body and are most often asymptomatic and undetected unless seen on an image taken for another reason. Is disfiguring on skin and damaging to internal structures by compression

Vascular hamartoma: dermal tumor mass consisting of blood vessels

Hatching: babies breaking free of their shells

Hatch year: HY: age designation of a young bird that is still in its first calendar year of life; no matter when it hatched; on Jan. 2 it becomes a second-year bird (SY); bird in its hatch year is a juvenile; After hatch year (AHY) bird is in at least its second calendar year, but whether it is in its second year or older cannot be determined; after second-year, bird known to be at least in its third calendar year or older

Haversian system: small canals through which blood vessels ramify in bone (Ramify: to divide or spread out into branches or branchilike parts)

Hawking: action of catching insects on the wing

Healing by first intention: union or restoration of continuity occurs directly without intervention of granulations. Healing by fibrous adhesion, without suppuration or formation of granulation tissue. Also called primary adhesion, primary union

In primary wound healing there is no tissue loss. The incised wound is held together by a blood clot and possibly by sutures or surgical clamps. An inflammatory process begins in adjacent tissue at the moment of injury. After several days, granulation tissue forms as a result of migration of fibroblasts to the area of injury and formation of new capillaries. Epithelial cells at wound margin migrate to clot and seal the wound. Regenerating epithelium covers the wound. Scarring occurs as granulation tissue matures and injured tissue is replaced with connective tissue.

Healing by second intention occurs when there is tissue loss, as in extensive burns and deep ulcers. The healing process is more prolonged than in healing by primary intention because large amounts of dead tissue must be removed and replaced with viable cells. Open area is more extensive; inflammatory reaction is more widespread and tends to become chronic. Healing may occur under a scab formed of dried exudate or dried plasma proteins and dead cells (eschar). Fibroblasts and capillary buds migrate toward center of wound to form granulation tissue, which becomes a translucent red color as capillary network develops. Granulation tissue is fragile and bleeds easily. As granulation tissue matures, marginal epithelial cells migrate and proliferate over connective tissue base to form a scar. Contraction of skin around scar is the result of movement of epithelial cells toward center of wound in an attempt to close the defect. Surrounding skin moves toward center of wound in an effort to close the wound.

Healing by third intention: a method of closing a grossly contaminated wound in which the wound is left open until contamination has been markedly reduced and inflammation has subsided and then is closed by first intention or sutures. Also called delayed primary closure.

Heart: Has 4 chambers as in humans

Heart block: electrical impulses of the heart are not properly conducted from the atria (chambers receiving blood) to the ventricles (chambers pumping blood)

Heart murmurs: abnormal sounds heard during examination. Can be loud or soft.

Helminths: parasitic worm, e.g., fluke, nematode, or tapeworm

Helminthiasis: disease of helminth parasites; treated with antihelminthics

Hemagglutination: to stick together (agglutinate) and form clumps; clumping of red blood cells by antibodies directed against antigens or viruses

Hemagglutination: Inhibition test: sensitivity test for measuring antibody responses, esp. to PBFD; gives birds PBFD status

Hemangiolipoma: benign tumor composed of fat and blood vessels

Hemangioma: benign tumor composed of newly formed blood vessels clustered together, usually found on skin and spleen, caused by leucosis virus in birds; leukemia-like malignant viral disease found in animals, esp. poultry

Hemangiosarcoma/angiosarcoma malignant tumor of blood vessels composed of epithelial cells; characterized by extensive matastasism; bleeds profusely if cut; occurs in spleen, liver, skin, heart, muscle

Hematemisis: vomiting blood from upper digestive tract

Hematochezia: bloody droppings

Hematocrit/PCV: Packed Cell Volume: lab test to monitor number of red blood cells

Hematology: science dealing with structure of blood and blood-forming tissues, such as bone marrow; studies blood's function in sickness and health

Hematoma/subdural hemorrhage or bruise; mass of blood within the tissues or abnormal blood clotting; result of trauma to the blood vessels

Hematopoisis: formation or production of red and white blood cells and platelets; occurs mainly in bone marrow

Hematuria: blood in urine, kidney, a liver disease

Hemi-parasites: category of brood parasites who lay eggs in other birds' nests

Hemianopea/hemianoptic: Blindness in half the visual fields; occurs with lesions of optic tracts

Hemochromatosis/Iron Storage disease: genetic disorder; excess accumulation of iron in body; damages organs, esp. liver, spleen, pancreas; caused by chronic anemia

Hemodilution: increase in fluid content of blood; leads to lower concentration of formed elements

Hemoglobin: oxygen-carrying pigment of RBC's that gives them their red color; conveys oxygen to tissues; protein found in RBC's transports oxygen in the blood

Hemoglobinemia: excessive hemoglobin in blood plasma

Hemoglobinuria: presence of hemoglobin pigment in urine; blood in urine

Hemogram: systemic report of findings of blood test

Hemolysis: rupture of erythrocytes with the release of hemoglobin; causes hemoglobin to be released into the blood plasma

Hemolytic anemia: caused by destruction of RBC's in the vascular system; caused by transfusion reaction, staph, antibodies in immune system; all attack RBC's

Hemoptysis: expectoration of blood/blood-stained sputum from bronchi, larynx, trachea, or lungs

Hemorrhage: excessive bleeding; result of injury or clotting abnormalities

Hemosiderosis: focal or general increase in tissue iron storages without associated tissue damage

Hemostasis: stoppage of bleeding

Hemostat: small surgical instrument used to clamp blood vessels to prevent or stop  bleeding

Hen: adult female bird

Heparin: anticoagulant chemical released in response to injury

Hepatic Lipidosis (Fatty Liver disease) Excessive fat accumulation in the liver due to high-fat diet and sedentary lifestyle

Hepatic Peritoneal Cavities: Two paired cavities in liver, ventral and dorsal

Hepatitis: inflammation or infecton of liver

Hepatocytes: liver cells

Hepatoma: liver tumor

Hepatomegaly: enlargement of liver due to disease or heart failure

Hepatopathies: diseases of liver

Hepatotoxicity: poisonous to the liver

Hepatosplenomegaly: enlarged spleen and liver

Hernia: protrusion of an organ through an abnormal opening or other tissues that normally contain it

Heronry: colonies of herons, egrets and ibises nest as a group

Heterophil: granular leukocyte which reacts serologically with an antigen of another species; predominant leukocyte

High-titer vaccine: modified live vaccine; contains higher number of virus particles than "average" vaccine. Can elicit immune system response in young animals that have maternal antibody levels that would prevent them from responding to an average vaccine

Hindcollar: a band seen above the nape and below the crown on the back of a bird's neck.

Histamine: chemical released in response to allergens that cause itching

Histiocytes: phagocytic cells that engulf foreign substance; macrophages

Histology: study of microscopic structure of tissues; study of the structure, composition, and function of tissue; deals with minute structure, composition, function of tissues in anatomy

Histopathology: study of diseases' effects upon individual cells or group of cells; microscopic study of tissue changes caused by disease

Holocrine: pertaining to a sebaceous gland releasing a secretion that is a product of disintegrating cells; the secretion released by such a gland is called "sebum." E.g., uropygial gland

Homeostasis: stable internal environment; body adjusts to conditions to maintain relatively constant internal environment

Homeotherm/homeothermic: an organism with a stable, independent body temperature; independent of the surrounding environment; animals, including man, who need a constant body temperature.

Homogenous: of uniform quality, composition or structure

Homologous: very similar in position, structure, value or function, sharing common ancestry; having a common origin but different functions in different species

Horizontal transmission: from animal to animal

Hormone: chemical substance produced by one part of the body which serves as a messenger to or regulator of the processes of another part of the body

Host-specific: virus, bacteria, or parasite that causes disease in only one species or genus

Humor: body fluid, e.g., blood, lymph, bile

Humoral: area of feathers covering the bone near the upper wing or shoulder

Humoral immunity: the result of antibody production by B cells; compare with "cell-mediated immunity." Differentiated B-cells produce antibodies that react with the antigen or substances produced by the antigen; humoral immunity is most effective against bacteria, viruses that are outside body cells, and toxins. It is also involved in allergic reactions

Humoral patagium: The fleshy area which connects the elbow to the thorax.

Humorus: large, upper wing bone

Hybrid: offspring of parents of two different species

Hydrocephalus: fluid accumulation in the ventricles (spaces) of the brain; swelling creates pressure on the brain tissues, causing severe damage if untreated

Hydrophilic: affinity for fats or other lipids; promotes absorption of lipids

Hydrophillic dressing: readily absorbs moisture; indicated for use on skin ulcers, surgical incisions, superficial injuries; e.g., burns, lacerations, abrasions; pressure sores; contains Vit A, B6, calcium, magnesium for healing

Hydrophobic: water resistant

Hydrolysis: chemical decomposition; compound is split into other compounds by reacting with water as in Elemental formulas e.g. Emeraid

Hydroscope/hydroscopic: optical instrument composed of mirrors in a tube; used to see objects below water surface

Hydriasis: prolonged dilation of pupil, result of drugs

Hyoid bone: bone in back of bird's tongue; allows tongue extention

Hyperadrenocorticism: disease caused by hyperactive adrenal cortices; caused by corticotropic adenoma of pituitary or overtreatment with corticosteroids

Hyperalgesia: An increased response to a stimulation that is normally painful (a heightened sense of pain) at the site of injury or in surrounding undamaged tissue. Stimulated nociceptors respond to noxious stimuli more vigorously and at a lower threshold.

Hypercalcemia: increased calcium level in blood; results in calcification of soft tissue such as cartilage, and can overly harden egg shells

Hypercapnia: excessive carbon dioxide in blood; Hypocapnia: decreased levels of CO2

Hyperechoic walls/hypochoic: too many or too few sound waves, in radiology

Hyperemia: abnormally large abount of blood in any body part

Hyperesthesia: abnormal sensitivity to sensory stimuli; Increased sensitivity to stimulation (i.e., touch). The word is used to indicate both diminished threshold to any stimulus and an increased response to stimuli that are normally recognized

Hypoesthesia: too little sensitivity to sensory stimulation

Hyperglycemia/hypoglycemia: higher or lower than normal blood glucose levels

Hyperkalemia: increased level of potassium in blood

Hyperkeratosis/Hyperkeratonic scales: thickening of horny layer of skin, keratin—beak and feet

Hyperparathyroidism: enlarged parathyroid glands from calcium deficiency

Hyperphosphatemia: Elevated blood phosphate levels

Hyperpigmentation: increased dark color of skin caused by pigment "melanin"

Hyperplasia/Hyperplastic: abnormal increase in number of cells within an organ; increased size of organ

Hyperplastic bone marrow: bone marrow with an excessive amount of normal blood cell-producing tissue; leads to anemia; bone marrow unable to supply RBC's fast enough for normal body requirements

Hyperpnea: deep, rapid respiration, abnormal increase in rate and depth of respirations

Hyperreactive: exaggerated or greater than normal response to a stimulus

Hypersensitive: allergic condition; body overreacts to a certain agent, e.g., bee sting, meds

Hypertension: high blood pressure

Hyperthermia: high body temperature

Hypertonic: body part such as muscle or artery that is under unusually high tension; fluid that has a higher osmotic pressure than another fluid

Hypertrophic osteopathy: excessive growth, abnormal enlargement; manipulation of muscle and bones to promote structural integrity

Hypertrophy: increase in the size of an organ

Hyperuricemia: excessive uric acid in blood

Hyperventilation: abnormally rapid, deep breathing; results in decreased levels of carbon diaxide in cells

Hypervitaminosis: too much of a vitamin in body

Hyphae: filaments of a fungus, spiral or coiled; when present, there is an invasion of the mucosa by the specific yeast, results in systemic infection

Hyphema: hemorrhage into anterior chamber of eye, caused by perforated corneal wound or head trauma; no treatment; blood reabsorbed in a few days

Hyphosis: abnormal backward curvature of the spine

Hypochromasia: decrease of hemoglobin in RBC's; they appear abnormally pale

Hypoesthesia: too little sensitivity to sensory stimulation

Hypopenae: afterfeathers

Hypoplasia: incomplete or less than normal development of an organ, tissue or cell

Hypopnea: abnormally slow, shallow breathing

Hypoproteinemia: low protein levels in blood

Hyporachis: afterfeather at base of vane

Hypothermia: low body temperatures

Hypovitaminosis: disorders caused by low amounts of vitamins in blood

Hypovitaminosis E: leads to muscular dystrophy, loss of mvt in wings, bird clamps wings to sides due to muscular fibrosis

Hypervolemic: excessive amount of circulating fluid/plasma in body

Hypovolemic shock: caused by reduced blood volume from massive bleeding or dehydration

Hypoxia/Hypoxemia: inadequate oxygen supply to tissues despite adequate blood supply

Iatrogenic: medical disorder caused by physician error

IBA: Important Bird Area

Icterus: jaundice; yellowing of tissues due to abnormal liver function

Idiopathic: disease of unknown origin

Idiopathic prolapse: falling down of organ from original position; unknown cause

Ileum: third and lowest division of small intestine, extends from jejunum to cecum; distal or last portion of the small intestine

Ileus: intestinal obstruction: lack of peristalsis; leads to severe colicky pain and vomiting; caused by disturbances in neural stimulation of bowel

Imbricating/imbrication: a surgical repair in which one edge is sutured over the other (rather than edge to edge), or in which a flat structure (fascia) is repaired with parallel suture lines, corset-like, to tighten it.

Immature: bird who has not molted into adult plumage

Immature plumage: seen on a bird before it reaches adulthood

Immune system: group of lymphatic tissues involved in lymphocyte production, immune responses or both; includes lymphoid organs: thymus, Bursa of Fabricus, and spleen; secondary lymphoid organs: lymphatic tissue and nodes; body's defense system, recognizes infectious agents and works to destroy them

Immune-mediated disease: caused by an unspecified immune reaction; condition caused by abnormal activity of immune system; body's immune system either overreacts (e.g., immune-mediated contact dermatitis) or starts attacking the body itself (e.g., autoimmune hemolytic anemia)

Immune response: production of antibodies or lymphoid cells which challenge an antigen

Immune tolerance: failure to produce antigens against a pathogen; self-antigens are body parts, foreign antigens are outside of body

Immunity: protection for a disease that is afforded by prior exposure to it or vaccination. See "Cell-mediated" and "Humoral mediated"; Intact skin protects body from infection as an anatomical barrier

Immunodeficiency: reduced function of immune system, making it more susceptible to disease; genetic or caused by drugs, radiation, or viruses

Immunogen/immunogenic: substance that causes antibody formation

Immunologic memory: cells created to remember the antigens on a foreign substance after an animal mounts an immune response to it; causes a faster response to the antigen in future

Immunostimulant: compound which stimulates immune system to work more effectively to kill bacteria, viruses

Immunosuppressed: defective immune response; inability to produce antibodies against disease or mount an immune response that would normally overcome

immunosuppressent: pathogen/substance that prevents or decreases the body's reaction to invasion by disease or foreign material

Imperforated: separated by a septum, e.g., human nostrils; Perforated: continuous with other side, e.g., bird's nares

Impulse: wave of excitation transmitted through the nervous tissue

Inappetence: lack of appetite

Incise: cut with a surgical instrument, e.g., scalpel

Inclusion body: a body suspended in the cytoplasm, such as a granule; round bodies in cytoplasm and nucleus of cells, e.g., virus found in cell. An abnormal structure in a cell nucleus or cytoplasm having characteristic staining properties and usually composed of protein, occurring primarily in infectious diseases, especially viral infections

Incubation: the hen resting on eggs, generating heat which causes the eggs to hatch

Incubation: keeping eggs at proper temperature; providing proper conditions for growth and development, as in bacterial cultures; development of an infectious disease from time of entry of pathogen to appearance of clinical signs

Incumbent: at same level, resting or leaning on something

Index case: initial individual whose condition or disease led to investigation of a disease outbreak or hereditary condition

Infarction: localized area of necrosis caused by interruption to blood supply to an organ

Infection: invasion and replication of microorganisms in tissues, causes disease and local inflammation

Infectious agents: organisms that cause infection: viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites

Infectivity: virulence or strength of pathogenic bacteria

Infiltrate: to penetrate the interstices of tissue; the material deposited by infiltration

Inflammation: tissue reaction to injury, changes it undergoes in healing process; signs are redness, increased temperature, pain, swelling, loss of function

Inflammatory response: Immune system response to inflammation causing heat, pain, and redness at site of injury.

Infraorbital: below the eye

Infraorbital sinus: sinus below/behind the eye

Infundibulum: funnel-like entrance of female's reproductive tract; egg leaves ovary and enters infundibulum; opening into the oviduct; sperm meet egg there

Infundibular cleft: small slit located behind choanal slit; opening to the middle ears, connected by the pharyngotympanic tube. Middle ear infections cause redness and swelling in cleft

Ingluvies: crop

Innate: permanent genetic characteristic

Inner primaries: feathers closest to body on wing, covered partially by secondaries

Inner secondaries: feathers closest to body

Inner wing: similar to inner arm of human; includes shoulder, secondaries and secondary coverts

Innervate/innervation: to supply with nerves; to stimulate a nerve or an organ to activity

Inoculation: vaccine from killed bacteria

Insoluble carbohydrate: fiber; resists enzymatic digestion in small intestine

Inspissated/inspissate: to condense, become thicker in consistency, cause somethng to thicken by boiling or evaporation

Insufflation/insufflatins/ insufflate:  inserting air into an organ or opening in the body

Intact: having no cuts, scrapes, openings, or alterations; having all functioning body parts.

Integument: skin; no sweat glands in birds

Intention: manner of healing, see first, second, third intention

Intercondylar: between 2 condyles, smooth surface area at end of bone, forming part of joint

Intercostal region: located between ribs

Intergrade: offspring from breeding of two sub-species

Intermediate host: lmmature form of a parasite passes through different host before it can re-enter and infect another animal.

Interramel region/space: fleshy area under mandible, holds tongue and related structures

Interscapular region: between scapulars or shoulder blades

Interstitial: between parts or within spaces of tissue; vascular compartments or organs

Interstitial cystitis: inflammation in wall of urinary bladder

Interstitial infiltrate: cellular infiltrate scattered evenly through the thickness of dermis

Interventional pain management: An invasive procedure to treat or manage pain through an injection of a drug or implantation of a drug delivery device.

Intracellular: within cell or group of cells

Intracytoplasmic: located or occuring within cytoplasm of cell

Intradermal: within skin

Intradermal skin testing: injection of test substances into the skin layer to observe a reaction; used for diagnosis of atopy, allergy

Intramuscular: within the muscle, injection into the muscle

Intraosseously: into or within bone; medication is sometimes delivered this way

Intraosseous injections: fluids or drugs given into bone using cannula

Intraspecific brood parasite: birds that lay their eggs in nest of same bird species to be raised by other parents

Intraspecific hybrids: occurs when two different races, subspecies, varieties or breeds of the same species are crossed, and an offspring is produced

Intrinsic: pertaining exclusively to a part, as in intrinsic tongue muscles

Intumescence:  swollen mass

Intussusception: sliding of a portion of a tubular organ into another portion of it, esp. a condition of the bowel, creates swelling leading to obstruction; one part of the intestine "telescopes" into another

Invagination: infalling of one part into another, e.g., intussusception, skin folds; invagination of skin forms feather follicles

Invasive tumors: the mass does not have well-defined borders and is spreading

Involucrum: covering or sheath that forms around a sequestrum of new bone, as in osteomylelitis

Ipsilateral/contralateral: situated on the same side/opposite side of the body

Iridocyclitis: inflammation of the iris and ciliary body of the eye

Iris: colored part of eye around pupil; does not play a role in vision

Irruptive: certain species of birds may be seen in one year and not in other years.

Ischemic/ischemia: local deficiency of blood supply due to obstruction of blood flow; isch: hold back

Ischiatic (schiatic) nerve: Sciatica occurs when there is a deficiency in blood supply due to vasoconstriction or obstacles to arterial flow; this nerve is in the caudal or dorsal portion of hip bone, buttock area; causes pain the lumbar area and legs of humans and animals

Isoflurane anesthesia: volatile, halogenated ether; best choice for birds

Isolate: microbiological definition: to separate a pure strain from a mixed bacterial or fungal culture

Isolation area: special area constructed to prevent spread of contagious diseases

Isotonic solution: one in which body cells can be bathed without net flow of water across the semipermeable cell membrane; has the same salt concentration as cells and blood, used in IV for infusing fluids

Isthmus: portion of the oviduct located farthest from the ovary that adds the shell membranes

Jake: young male turkey

Jaundice: elevated bilirubin levels; buildup of bilirubin waste products; bilirubin is yellow, therefore the yellowing of mucous membranes, gums, skin and eyes; result of destruction of large numbers of RBC's; malfunctioning liver or blocked bile ducts

Jejunum: middle  and longest part of small intestine; extends from duodenum to ileum

Joints (articulations) connections between bones; to articulate is to join in a way that allows motion between the parts. Different types of joints are based on their function and degree of movement

  • Hinge joints: allow motion in one plane or direction, like the elbow
  • Gliding joints: move or glide over each other, as in the verebrae.

Joint effusion: fluid escaping from the joint

Jugal: cheek area; jugal arch in birds has same function as zygomatic arch in mammals

Jugulum: ventral part of neck under beak; jugulum and gular region comprise the throat; aka foreneck or throat patch

Juvenile: young bird in its hatch year; plumage seen on a fledgling

Juvenile plumage: feathers on bird after they molt natal down; first true contour feathers

Karyomegaly enlarged nucleus

Keratin: hard protein that forms scales and claws; primary structural component of mature feathers and horny body parts; insoluble in water; strengthens feathers, beaks, claws, bills

Keratinocytes: keratin cells

Keratitis: inflammation of cornea of eye, caused by infection, trauma, allergic reaction

Keratocanthoma: KA, low-grade skin tumor originating from neck of a hair or feather follicle; often seen on sun-exposed skin, on face, forearms and hands

Keratoconjunctivitis sicca: "dry eye" due to inadequate tear production; thick, yellowish discharge from eye.

Keratoconus: conical protrusion of center of cornea

Keratolytic: soft, loose crusts and scales on skin

Keratoma/ keratosis: horny growths on skin; callus; bony deposit formed between and around broken ends of a fractured bone during healing

Keratopathy: corneal inflammmatory disease

Kerfs: shallow grooves cut horizontally below the entrance hole on the interior of the front of a nest box; provide footholds for nestlings and adults as they climb up to the hole

Keryolysis: dissolution of the cell nucleus with loss of affinity for basic stains; usually occurs in necrosis

Ketoacidosis: life-threatening condition in which ketones accumulate in bloodstream and lower pH of the blood

Ketones: result from breakdown of fat for energy. Ketones are the by-products of broken down fatty acids in the bodies, too much it in your blood is bad for health. Ketones are produced when you lose weight or when there is not enough insulin (in birds, glucagon) to break down sugar for energy.

Kettle: congregation of migrating birds of prey seen soaring overhead

Kidney: organ that filters waste liquid resulting from metabolism; subsequently excretes it as urine; also secretes urates—the solid waste of the kidney.

Killed vaccine: disease-causing viruses or bacteria are killed then put into a liquid base as opposed to modified live vaccine and recombinant vaccine

Kinetic: producing motion

Klebsiella: nasty gram-neg. bacteria; treated with Claforan

Koch's postulates: set of requirements for diagnosis of a disease; original postulates formulated in 1884 and 1890 in order to determine the etiology of cholera and TB; newer postulates were formulated in the 1980's.


1.The microorganism must be found in abundance in all organisms suffering from the disease, but should not be found in healthy organisms.

2. The microorganism must be isolated from a diseased organism and grown in pure culture.

3. The cultured microorganism should cause disease when introduced into a healthy organism.

4. The microorganism must be re-isolated from the inoculated, diseased experimental host and identified as being identical to the original specific causative agent.

21st Century postulates:

1. A nucleic acid sequence belonging to a putative pathogen should be present in most cases of an infectious disease. Microbial nucleic acids should be found preferentially in those organs or gross anatomic sites known to be diseased, and not in those organs that lack pathology.

2. Fewer, or no, copies of pathogen-associated nucleic acid sequences should occur in hosts or tissues without disease.

3. With resolution of disease, the copy number of pathogen-associated nucleic acid sequences should decrease or become undetectable. With clinical relapse, the opposite should occur.

4. When sequence detection predates disease, or sequence copy number correlates with severity of disease or pathology, the sequence-disease association is more likely to be a causal relationship.

5. The nature of the microorganism inferred from the available sequence should be consistent with the known biological characteristics of that group of organisms.

6. Tissue-sequence correlates should be sought at the cellular level: efforts should be made to demonstrate specific in situ hybridization of microbial sequence to areas of tissue pathology and to visible microorganisms or to areas where microorganisms are presumed to be located.

7. These sequence-based forms of evidence for microbial causation should be reproducible.

Koilin exfoliation: falling off in layers; hollowed

Kyphosis: dorsal curvature of the spine, also called hunchback

Labile: readily or continually undergoing chemical, physical or biological change or breakdown

Laceration: accidental cut into the skin

Lacrimal duct: tear duct in eye

Lamellae: thin scales or plates, as in bones; strainer-type teeth found in the bills of waterfowl for feeding purposes

Lamellate: coarse or fine parallel ridges or plates at cutting edge of beak (tomia)

Larder: areas used by shrikes to store their prey

Larva: worm-like offspring of an insect

Laryngeal mound: a conspicuous mound in the throat at the entrance of the larynx in birds

Laryngopharynx: area below epiglottis opening into larynx and esophagus

LDH: lactic dehydrogenase: enzyme found in liver, muscles, heart; released with damage; used to measure degree of pathological condition

Laser treatment: device that transfers light into an intense beam for various purposes; used on birds (cool laser)

Latent infection: carrier state; animal with infection but without outward signs; dormant stage; condition that may not be clinically noticed but under stress or poor health will develop into a recognizable disease state

Lateral Cantus: outside corner of eye

Lateral Tail feathers: large tail feathers to each side of the central tail feathers

Lavage: irrigation of tissue with fluid

Laxity: looseness

Leading edge of wing: first area from a frontal position when bird is in flight: shoulder and patagial areas

Leiomyosarcoma: malignant tumor containing smooth muscle cells

Lek: a determined area where multiple male birds put on courtship displays to attract female mates

Lesion: damage to organ or tissue; pathological change in tissue

Lesser secondary coverts: short feathers overlying median secondary coverts on top of wing; first row of feathers on wing; aka marginal coverts

Lethargy: lack of energy, sluggish

Leucism/leucistic: condition that turns feathers pale or white; pigment cells fail to develop properly; results in white patches or completely white animal; feathers are white, but it does not have red eyes; caused by reduced pigmentation in the bird's feathers by recessive allele

Leukocytes: white, nucleated blood cells in blood and lymphatic tissue; produced in bone marrow and function in fighting disease

Leukocyte morphology: structure of the WBC's; tells how sick the bird is

Leukocytosis: increase in number of WBC's

Leukopenia: decrease in number of WBC's

Lichenification: thicking or hardening of skin

Life List: number of wild birds seen by one individual birder

Ligament: band of fibrous connective tissue connecting one bone to another bone

Ligand-gated: permitting or blocking through cell membrane in response to chemical stimules

Lingual nail: stiff, pliable, keratinized cuticle on tip of a psittacine bird's tongue; beta keratin filaments arranged like scutellate scales

Lipase: digestive enzyme produced by pancreas, breaks down fat

Lipemia/hyperlipemia/ Lipemic plasma: excessive amount of lipids in blood

Lipogenesis: cause of fat deposit

Lipogenic: produced or caused by fat

Lipoma: benign tumor composed of mature fat cells

Lipophilic: promotes absorption of fats; combines with fats or dissolves in lipids

Lipoproteins: transport form of hepatic lipids

Liposarcoma: malignant tumor characterized by large anaplastic lipoblasts, sometimes with foci of normal fat cells

Liver: largest abdominal organ; produces enzymes required for digestion and bile to digest fat; detoxifies blood and may be damaged in the process

Liver failure: weakness, wobbly gait, difficulty breathing, swollen fluid-filled abdomen, swollen liver, end-stage disease; damaged by cancer, fat infiltration from high-fat diet, cirrhosis from chronic exposure to poisons; x-rays, blood tests identify cause and severity; treatment is usually euthanasia because by the time symptoms occur it's untreatable

Lobe: round projection or division

Locular/loculium/loculi: small sinus in a bone

Lordosis: abnormally exaggerated forward curvature of the spine, swayback

Lore (lores, pl) loral region: the narrow area between the commisure of the beak and the nasal canthus of the eye; area between eye and beak

Lumen: cavity of channel within a tube or tubular organ, such as blood vessesls or intestines; opening in a vessel through which fluid flows; affected by constriction and dilation

Lutino cockatiel syndrome: Baldness on crown, hemophilia (uncontrolled bleeding); increased susceptibility to disease; poor coordination; falls off perch at night, Bruised/bleeding wing tips; abdomen, pectoral muscles prone to trama and failing; many genetic problems. These symptoms were common when the lutino mutation was first developed and still exist except where careful breeding practices are not used

Lumbosacral plexus: network of nerves innervating the perineum and muscles of the pelvic limb; feeds sciatic nerves of hip in sacral and lumbar areas

Luxation: a fracture; also loosening or relaxing, to displace the bones of a joint, dislocation of a bone from its joint

Lymph: transparent, pale yellow liquid found in lymphatic vessels; collected from body tissues and returned to the blood via the lymphatic system; 95% water, rest is plasma proteins; composed mostly of lymphocytes (WBC's)

Lymph nodes: part of immune system; small masses of tissue containing WBC's (lymphocytes); blood is filtered through the lymph node allowing foreign or infectious material to be recognized and destroyed

Lymphocytes: 2nd most important white blood cell; antibody function; an important cell class in the immune system that produces antibodies to attack infected and cancerous cells, and is responsible for rejecting foreign tissue

Lymphoepithelial system: composed of mucosa associated with lymphatic tissue; mucous covers cellular receptors for bacteria and viruses

Lymphokines: chemicals produced by T-cell lymphocytes; signal macrophages and other phagocytes to destroy foreign invaders

Lymphoma/lymphosarcoma: neoplastic disorder of lymphoid tissue; usually malignant; lymph cancer; proliferation of malignant lymphocytes within solid organs such as lymph nodes, bone marrow, liver, spleen; also eye, skin, GI tract; diffuse, not limited or localized

Lymphopiosis: development of lymphocytes or lymphoid tissue

Lysed cells: cause dissolution or destruction of cells by lysins

Lysin: antibody causing the disintegration of RBC's or bacterial cells; ear wax a mass of partially lysed cells, traps particles to keep ear canal clear

Lysis: dissolution or destruction of RBC's, bacteria or other antigens by specific lysin (antibody) or by action of detergents, thus allowing cell contents to escape.

Macaw "Acne": Small swellings on face caused by small, ingrown feathers on face and eyelids; surgery releases trapped feathers

Macrorhabdus ornithogaster or Megabacteria/Avian gastric yeast:  Megabacteria is a yeast that grows in the isthmus, or the narrow part of the stomach that is between the proventriculus and ventriculus. Although originally thought to be a bacterial infection (hence, the name Megabacteria) researchers have learned that fungal medications are highly effective in ridding a bird of this illness; infects birds with low immunity, have concurrent disease or poor diet

Macrophages: large WBCs; ingest foreign particles and infectious microorganisms by phagocytosis; occuring mostly in connective tissue and bloodstream

Magnum/ Ampulla: the second or middle portion of the oviduct that separates the albumin and chalaza; This is the longest and most coiled portion of the oviduct. Albumin is formed there; It is very thick-walled and contains many tubular glands which secrete albumen, sodium, magnesium and calcium. The egg remains in the magnum for three hours. at approximately 40 centimeters long it secretes more than 40% of the albumen

Malabsorption syndrome: maldigestion; food not properly digested, nutrients not absorbed

Malaise: discomfort, uneasiness or weakness, indicates infection

Malar region/malars/mustache feathers: bird's cheek feathers; extend between the ear and the throat

Malar stripe: area below eye and beak, parallel to throat; stripe on sides of chin, stretches downward, brightly colored; aka whisker, mustache or malar streak

Malnutrition: reduced state of health due to improper/insufficient diet

Mandibular prognathism: mandible projects forward so that maxilla is tucked inside it; underbite

Mandibular ramus: prong-like projections from the beak on the posterior side

Mantle: upper surface of back and wings covered with short feathers; back, shoulders, upperwing coverts, and secondaries; especially applied to gulls.

Manus: hand part of the wing; contains alula and major and minor digits (phalanges); portion of the wing that supports the primary feathers

MAOI's: Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor: chemicals which inhibit the activity of the monoamine oxidase enzyme family; regulate connections between nerves; treat depression

Margin: border/edge of surgical incision

Marginal coverts/wing lining: soft feathers that form a smooth, featureless surface on the anterior edge of the ventral wing; same as lesser secondary coverts or shoulder; top edge of wing closest to body of bird

Marsupialization: conversion of closed cavity into an open pouch

Mast cell: a leucocyte; part of immune system. When stimulated, they release chemicals that signal either injury or infection and cause an inflammation in the area.

Mast cell produces chemicals (mediators), histamines and heparin. Histamines cause capillary walls to become more permeable, letting substances through. Heparin prevents blood from clotting to allow blood to flow to the area of infection or injury. Mast cells play an important role in allergic reactions because of their ability to produce and release histamines.

Mast cell tumor: most are benign; groups of mast cells form nodules, tumors on skin; can become malignant

Mate-guarding: mate follows female to prevent her from breeding with another male; assures he is father of at least some of the young in his nest

Maxilla: upper beak/bill of bird

Meatus: opening in a bone or bony structure, like ear or nose 

Medial bar: central portion of a feather, especially the primaries

Median surival time: Time at which 50% of animals had died

Mediate: exhibit indirect causation, connection or relation

Medium/media: materials used to culture microorganisms

Medulla: marrow of bones; soft, center of an organ, e.g., kidney or adrenal gland

Medullary: resembling or pertaining to medulla of an organ or medulla oblongata of brian; inner substance of various organs and structures, esp. bone marrow, spinal cord or brain

medullary cavity

cavity of the bone marrow.

medullary cord

cords of tissue in lymph nodes; may be hyperplastic in cases of chronic, localized disease.

medullary reticular formation

the part of the medulla oblongata which controls the trigeminal, facial, vagal and hypoglossal nerve nuclei.

medullary sinus

part of the flow system for lymph through lymph nodes; drains into efferent lymphatic vessels at the node hilus.

Medullary bones: store calcium in the female for egg-laying; female birds produce a layer of medullary bone tissue when they are laying 

Medullary bone density: bone marrow

Medullary bone formation: Controlled by hormones; seen in long wing and leg bones

Medullary hyperostosis: abnormal development of bony tissue in the medulla of an organ

(see osteomyelosclerosis)

Medullary sheath: layer of myelin surrounding a medullated nerve fiber

Megabacteria: macrohabdus ornithogaster; gastric yeast; pathogenic, large gram+ rod, megabacteriosis causes weight loss

Medullary cavity of bone: the inner space of bone containing bone marrow; composed mainly of fat cells, used as a fat storage area. In birds exist only in non-pneumatic bones

Melanin: makes feathers dark, associated with increased amounts of keratin, so dark feathers are stronger; most common pigments in feathers; occurs mostly in flight feathers; causes these colors: black, gray, light and dark brown, brick red, dull yellow, tan; also appears in feet and beak as markings

Melanism: opposite of albinism; the occurrence of very dark or black-colored birds who ordinarily have light-colored plumages

Melanistic: a surplus of dark feathers on a bird

Melanoma: cancer of pigmented skin cells

Melatonin: pineal gland secretion which controls circadian rhythm and reproductive timing.

Melena: black blood in stool; hemorrhage in upper GI tract

Membranes: thin layers of tissue that cover a surface, line a cavity, or divide a space or an organ

Mentation: mental activity or state of mind

Mesenchyme: skin cells of mesodermal (middle dermis) origin; develop into connective tissues, blood, lymphatic and blood vessels

Mesentary: fold in peritoneum which attaches small intestine to  abdominal wall;

Mesothelium: the cellular covering that forms the lining of serous membranes such as the peritoneum.

Metabolic acidosis: blood condition; blood too acidic

Metabolism: chemical process involving food; material is produced, maintained, and destroyed; energy made available; the chemical processes that take place in the cells and tissues of the body

Metabolic energy: (ME) the net energy available to an animal from a certain food

Metapatagium: the tissue at the base of the patagium.

Metaphysis: wider part at the end of the shaft of a long bone

Metaplasia: transformation of one kind of tissue into another, less undesirable type; e.g., tumor formation; change from normal to abnormal cells

Metastasize/metastasis/matastases): malignant growths that spread to distant body sites; a pathogenic growth distant from the primary disease site.

Metritis: inflammation of uterus

Microsurgery: repair of minute structures with aid of microscope and small instruments

Microbe: disease-causing microorganism

Microfilaria/ Microfilaremia: parasite of the blood

Microorganism: single-celled life form; e.g., bacteria, fungi, protozoa, virus

Migration: process of moving from one area to the other; birds migrate to cooler or warmer climates and to follow food sources

Mineralization: minerals laid down within tissue in an abnormal pattern, causes a hardening of tissue

Mineralocorticoids: hormones produced by adrenal gland; regulate sodium, potassium, chloride levels in blood

Miosis: excessive contraction of pupil

Mirror: a white spot or patch seen within the dark areas of the subterminal band on the tip of the primaries; usually in gulls

Mirror band: group of white spots seen in the primaries, usually in gulls

Mirror tongue: continuous row of white tips seen throughout primaries and secondaries

Mites: scaly face; parasites that grow around face and beak; treated with Ivermectin

Mitochondria: parts of cell responsible for provided cell with energy

Mitosis/mitotic: cell division; process that produces genetically identical cells to parent cell

Mobbing: group of birds which swoop to attack predator; give alarm calls

Modified live vaccine: take real, disease-causing virus and alter it in lab to a non-disease-causing virus; compare with "killed vaccine" and "recombinant vaccine."

Molt: process of shedding and replacing feathers; uses 25% of normal protein requirements; birds need extra protein, Vit. A, amino acids with sulpher, nutruition for energy

Monocytes/monocytosis: white cells associated with chronic disease, esp. Psittacosis, Aspergillosis, avian TB; excess number of monocytes in blood

Monogamous: bird species who only have one sexual mate at a time

Monogastrics: animals with a single stomach  

Monomorphic: sexes indistinguishable from each other in plumage and color

Monophyletic: recognized as one race of birds

Monotypic: bird species which have no known sub-species

Monovalent vaccine: stimulates body to produce protection against only one disease, e.g., a rabies vaccine; compare with "multivalent vaccine."

Morph: a color variation found within the same species of bird

Mortality: death, causative factors

Motility: movement, e.g., intestinal motility, muscular contractions that move food through GI tract; time it takes food to process and be excreted

Moustachial stripe: a line of different colored feathers from surrounding feathers that resemble a moustache

Murder: a group of crows

Musin: any of a group of mucoproteins found in tissues and secretions; e.g., saliva, stomach lining, skin; viscous when wet and a yellow powder when dry

Mucocutaneous: pertaining to muscous membranes and skin, e.g, eyelid

Mucolitic: pertaining to enzymes that break down mucous

Mucoprotein: protein which yields carbohydrates as well as amino acids in hydrolysis

Mucopurulent: marked by an exudate containing both mucus and pus; due to infection and inflammation; coming from eyes, nose, or any body part

Mucosa:  specialized membrane covering various passages and cavities exposed to air; e.g., mouth, nose, inner eyelids; if dry, animal is dehydrated; if pale, animal is anemic or in shock; if yellow, animal is jaundiced due to accumulation of waste products which should have been eliminated by liver, liver disease

Mucous membranes: line the respiratory system; a specialized form of epithelial tissue.

Mucus: viscous, protective substance secreted by glands of mucous membrane; Slime-like substance composed of glandular secretions, salts, cells, and leukocytes. Keeps tissue moist, warm, and filters the air as it enters the nose

Multifocal: arising from more than one form or location

Multilobulated organ: contains many lobules, many small lobes or divisions of lobe, e.g., kidney

Multivalent vaccine: combines two or more components to stimulate body to produce protecton against all components

Muscle petechiation: signs: weakness dazed look, cardiac symptoms, pallor in mucous membranes; requires blood tests; treatments: fluid replacement, vit's B, D2,  K, calcium, antibiotics

Muscle tissue: contains specialized ability to contract and relax

Types: skeletal, smooth, cardiac

Musculoskeletal system: two systems that work together to support the body and allow movement

Mutes: fecal droppings of raptors

Mycobacteria: causes Avian TB; similar to mold when cultured; aerobic; high level of lipid in mycobacterial cell walls makes staining difficult, but it is Gram-positive

Mycobacterial conjunctivitis: mycobacteria in conjunctiva of eye

Mycoplasma: minute organisms lacking true cell wall; causes respiratory disease, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections

Mycotic/mycosis: fungal disease

Mycotoxins: compound produced as byproducts of molds; poisonous substances emitted by fungi

Mydriasis: excessive dilation of pupils of eye caused by drug therapy, coma, or injury to eye

Myectomy: surgical removal of all or part of muscle

Myelin: Material surrounding nerves; made up of protein and fats; surrounds some nerve cells in concentric sheaths, insulating adjacent nerve fibers and enabling transmission of nerve impulses

Myelin sheath on nerve: a segmented fatty lamination composed of myelin that wraps the axons of many nerves in the body. The usual thickness of the myelin sheath is between 200 and 800 μm. Various diseases such as multiple sclerosis can destroy myelin wrappings; The cover that surrounds many nerve cells and helps to increase the speed by which information travels along the nerve .

Myelinated: having a medullary sheath

Myelitis: a disease involving inflammation of the spinal cord; disrupts CNS functions linking the brain and limbs; leads to permanently damaged spinal cord; fever, headaches, neuropathy, pain, loss of feeling, peripheral paresis, loss of bladder control, meningeal signs

Myelodysplasia: bone marrow produces abnormal blood cells 

Stem cells in bone marrow don't function normally; instead of producing healthy, mature RBCs, WBCs and platelets, marrow makes cells that are immature and die early; results in cytopenia (low levels of one or more types of blood cells in bloodstream)

Myeloid system: spinal cord or marrow

Myelolipoma: rare, beningn tumor of adrenal gland; composed of adipose tissue, lymphocytes and myeloid cells

Myeloma: primary tumor of bone marrow; formed in myelocytes (bone marrow cells) or plasma cells; usually involves several different bones at same time (multiple myelomas)

Myocardial fibrosis: heart muscle scarred from chronic disease

Myocarditis: inflammation or infection of myocardium

Myocardium: middle muscular layer of heart

Myocytes: muscular tissue cell

Myopathy: abnormal condition or disease of muscle

Myoplasty: surgical repair of muscle

Myotomy: surgical incision into muscle

Myxoma/Myxomatosis: soft tumor composed of mucous and primitive connective tissue cells and stroma resembling mesenchyme

Nail: the tip of the tongue; heavily keratinized for manipulating seeds

Nape: area between the base of the back of the head and the wings

Narial feathers: long feathers at the base of the maxilla and extending anteriorly to partially cover the nostrils; present in some groups, such as the crows.

Naris/nares (pronounced naraze): nostrils, placed in the cere

Nasal Gland: In water birds, gland that allows sea birds to drink saltwater; found in the rostral portion of the beak (front)

Nasal septum: partition or membrane between two cavities or soft masses of tissue; birds lack this in nose

Nasal canthus: inner corner of the eye, closest to nose (see medial canthus)

Nasal fossa: depression in which the bird's nostrils are located; openings into the nares

Nasopharynx: portion of throat behind nasal cavity and above the soft palate

Nebulization: medication used as a spray and inhaled in a closed chanber; for bacterial or fungal respiratory infections, esp. upper respiratory; topical, localized treatment of internal air sac and is not dependent on absorption; some meds nephrotoxic, need ones that do not cross through the semi-permeable membranes

Neck: allows bird to move head to increase its visual area without moving body; different species have different lengths which are usually proportional to length of legs; holds cervical vetebrae which are the bones that surround the spinal cord; birds have 11 to 25 cervical vertebrae; have more vertebrae than humans; depending on the length of the neck; minimum length enough to enable reaching uropygial gland for preening; flexible, moble, strong, forms S- curve, protuding forward in front, above level of crop; holds esophagus, jugular veins and trachea

Necropsy: postmortem examination that consists of a thorough examination of a dead animal to determine the cause and manner of death and to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present

Necrotic/necrosis: cell death in tissue or organ caused by necrobiosis; pathological death of one or more cells, or of a portion of a tissue or organ; results from irreversible damage to nucleus from disease or injury

Nematodes: parasitic round worms

Neonate: newborn bird state, lasts till bird opens its eyes and begins to quill out

Neoplasia/Neoplasm: new, abnormal growth; benign or malignant; tumor growth or formation and growth of new tissue; uncontrolled, more rapid than normal multiplication of cells; progressive; can become benign or malignant tumors

Nephrectasis: enlargment of kidney

Nephritis: inflammation of kidney

Nephrocalcinosis: calcification of kidneys from Hypervitaminosis D

Nephromalacia: abnormal softing of the kidney

Nephron: basic structural and functional unit of the kidney; regulates the concentration of water and soluble substances like sodium salts by filtering the blood, reabsorbing what is needed, and excreting the rest as urine; eliminates wastes from the body, regulates blood volume and blood pressure; controls levels of electrolytes and metabolites, regulates blood pH

Nephropathy: disease of kidneys

Nephroptosis: prolapsed kidney

Nephrosclerosis: abnormal hardening of the kidney

Nephrotoxic: poisonous to kidney cells

Nerve: bundle of fibers that transmits messages (impulses) between the brain or spinal cord and body organs

Nervous system: coordinates and controls body activity; detects and processes internal and external information and formulates appropriate responses

Nervous tissue: contains cells with the specialized ability to react to stimuli and conduct electrical impulses

Nest cup: depression in the nest to hold the eggs

Neuralgia: pain in the distribution of a nerve or nerves

Neuroglia, or glia/glial cells: are non-neuronal cells that maintain homeostasis, form myelin, and provide support and protection for neurons in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system; supports the essential elements of nervous tissue, esp. in brain, spinal cord and ganglia; composed of a network of fine fibrils, stellate cells, and radiating fibular processes

Neuritis: Inflammation of a nerve or nerves

Neuron: basic unit of the nervous system

  • sensory neurons: carry sensory impulses towrd the CNS, aka afferent/ascending tracts
  • associative neurons: carry impulses from one neuron to another; aka connecting neurons
  • motor neurons: carry impulses away from the CNS and toward the muscles; aka efferent/descending tracts

Neuroplasticity: nervous system can be shaped or molded, depending on outside environment and biological processes that are responsible for pain

Neurotransmitter: Chemical used as a messenger from one nerve cell to another

Neutroceptor: receptor for stimuli that are neither harmful nor beneficial, neutral

Neutralize: change from acidic or alkaline to a neutral pH

Newcastle Disease: virus of poultry and wild birds; paramyxovirus etiology; attacks GI, respiratory, and nervous systems; high susceptibility in psittacines

Niche: ecological role played by a bird species within an animal community

Nictitating membrane: third eyelid between eyelid and cornea; has its own lubricating duct (moisturizing system) equivalent to the human tear duct to clean and protect the eye; vertical, semi-transparent fold under the eyelid; closes to protect parent from chick's beak; protects from sun damage; protects diving birds' eyes

Nidus: a place in an organism where another organism can live or breed

Nociceptor/nociception: nerve ending that responds selectively to painful stimuli; causes sensation of pain

Node: small mass of tissue in the form of a swelling, knot, or protruberance; can be normal or pathological

Nocturnal: birds which feed at night

Nodular lesions: node-like lesions

Nodule: solid bump or lump protruding above the skin

Nomenclature: a system of names

Nominate: the term given to a bird which has the same scientific genus name as the scientific species

Non-breeding plumage/eclipse plumage: more drab plumage seen on birds when not in breeding season

Non-passerines: seabirds, waterfowl, birds of prey and doves

Non-pathogenic: not causing disease; some bacteria, e.g., those living normally in GI tract

Non-union: failure of a bone to heal

Nosocomial: infections contracted from being hospitalized

Nonseptic: a condition not caused by an infection; e.g., septic arthritis is caused by infection with bacteria or yeast or other agent; nonseptic arthritis caused by injury or cancer

Notarium: term for thoracic vertebrae from shoulder to lower back

Notched: a pointed bite taken out, as in the tail or beak

Noxious stimuli: damaging or potentially damaging stimuli on nervous system

NSAIDS: (Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs): agents that reduce inflammation but are not steroids; e.g., aspirin, Tylenol, etc

Nuchal collar: distinct feather markings across the nape of the bird's neck

Nucleated erythrocytes: immature form of red blood cells

Nucleolus/nucleoli: round, divided refractile body in the nucleus of most cells; sythesized RNA

Nutraceutical: broad term for components in food or nutritional supplements; contain substances normally present in the body that aid in proper functioning of body systems

Nystagmus: involuntary, rhythmic movement of both eyes in unison

Obstipation: constipation, intractable, unmanageable, intolerable

Obligate brood parasites: brood parasites which lay eggs in other birds' nests regularly

Obstruction: complete stoppage or impairment to passage; usually preceded by location, e.g., intestinal obstruction; incomplete is partial obstruction

Obtund: to render dull or blunt

Obtunded: depressed

Obtundent: having the power to dull sensibility or soothe pain; partially anesthetic agent

Obturation: obstruction of an opening or passageway, such as intestinal blockage

Obtuse: not sharply pointed

Occipital patch : a patch located on the back of the crown; e.g., in redpolls

Occlude/occlusion/occluding: to stop up, to block; to cut off or prevent the flow or passage of something such as light or liquid

Occult: disease or condition that is not clinically apparent

Ocular fundus: fundus is place farthest from opening of an organ, e.g.,  the retina of the eye

Ocular system: responsible for vision; eyes are receptor organs for sight

  • extraocular: outside the eyeball
  • intraocular: within the eyeball
  • periocular: around the eyeball

Off-label: medication not  FDA-approved; often used by vets

Oglets: beginning of a pin feather, having a keratin sheath

Olacronan: elbow joint of bird

Oliguria: little urine output

Omentum: free fold of peritoneum or one connecting or supporting viscera or other abdominal structure

Omphalitis: infection of the umbilicus caused by infection of the yolk by E. Coli or other bacteria; yolk is watery or caseous; chicks edematous, high mortaliity in young chicks

Oncogenic: causing tumors, esp.. related to viruses

Oncology: study of tumors

Oncotic: like a tumor or mass

Onychomycosis: superficial fungal infection of the claw

Oocyst: eggs of a parasite; sporazoan zygote undergoing sporageous development; the resistant stage of the life cycle of coccidial parasites. It contains a zygote and under appropriate conditions sporulates to become a mature, infective oocyst. It may also remain infective for long periods in dry conditions. Oocysts fall to the floor of a cage in the infected bird's feces and are transmitted to other birds when they consume the fecal matter.


Oocyte: type of gametocyte that produces ova (eggs); found in protozoa, e.g., giardia; female gametocyte or germ cell involved in reproduction. In other words, it is an immature ovum, or egg cell

Opaqueness: clouding of normally transparent object

Operculated: covered

Operculum: keratinized plate on the inside of the nostrils (nares); small, round, tan or brownish structure, can be obstructed by rhinoliths; a soft, fleshy structure inside the nostril (naris).

Opiod: Narcotic drug; activity similar to opium

Opisthotonos: spasm in which head and tail are bent backward and body bowed forward

Opportunistic disease: caused by pathogens which take advantage of certain conditions; e.g., bacteria, virus, fungi, protozoa; usually do not cause disease in a healthy host with good immune system

Oral: by mouth; PO or p.o. Nothing orally is NPO or n.p.o.

Oral hypoglycemic med: Oral medication which lowers glucose level in blood

Orbit: bony cavity of the skull that contains the eyeball

Orbital ring: area of bare skin surrounding the bird's eye

Organ: part of body that performs specific function

Organic matter: animal or vegetable tissues

Organized blood clots; replacement of blood clots with fibrous or granulated tissue

Ornithologist/ornithology: professional who studies birds/study of birds

Oropharynx: part of the pharynx between mouth and glottis (opening at top of pharynx). Contains tongue, glottis, choana, palate, salivary glands, esophagus, opening of pharyngotypanic tubes (ear tubes) and laryngeal mound; exam tells about overall health, indicates malnutrition, Vit. A deficiency, bacterial or yeast infection, middle ear infections;

  • Disease Signs: choana swollen, papillae blunted or absent, infundibular cleft red, abscesses present, thick, white ropey mucus present, internal papillomas present in GI tract, with lesions in orpharynx; they appear small, pink, wart-like

Osmosis: diffusion of fluids through membranes

Osmolality: ability to be absorbed through membranes or porous partitions, gradual absorption

Osmotic diuretic: compound that increases the amount of urine formed and rids the body of excess fluid by filtering it through the kidney into the urine in concentrated amounts, carrying water with it

Ossicle: single middle-ear bone

Ossification: process of bone formation from fibrous tissue; continues until maturity; natural process of forming bone; hardening of soft tissue as a result of impregnation with calcium salts; bony mass or deposit of bony material in body

Osteoarthritis: degenerative joint disease due to aging or wear and tear on joints

Osteoblast: bone-forming cell

Osteoblastic tumors:  form on elastic bone lesions; metastasized cancer on bone

Osteochondresis: abnormal differentiation or disease of growth cartilage

Osteochondritis: infection of bone and cartilage

Osteoclasism: absorption and destruction of bone tissue

Osteoclasts large, multinucleated cell as with resorption of bone

Osteodystrophy: degenerative condition due to faulty nutrition

Osteology: branch of anatomy dealing with skeleton

Osteolysis: breakdown or decomposition of bone

Osteomalacia: abnormal softening of bone

Osteomyelitis: inflammation and infection of bone

Osteomyelosclerosis: obliteration of bone marrow cavity by small spicules of bone; since long bones are air-filled in birds, the cavity is filled with bone particles. The normal bone marrow has few fibers, and these are found mainly in association with trabecular bone surfaces and blood vessels

Osteonecrosis: death of bone tissue

Osteotomy: sugical division of bone, or cutting a piece out to correct a deformity

Otitis: inflammation of ear

Otitis externa: external ear infection

Ototoxic: destructive to the structures of the ear

Otoscope/opthalmoscope: magnifying tool for examination of eyes and ears

Outbred: from unrelated parents; randomly bred

Outer primaries: longest feathers on the wing, farthest from body

Outer secondaries: secondary feathers farthest from the body

Outer tail feathers: farthest from body, fan out the farthest

Outer wing: encompasses the alula and primary feathers

Ovariectomy/oophorectomy: removal of ovary; only done in very large birds

Ovary: female gonad, matures and releases egg cells during ovulation; only left ovary is funtional in birds to lighten body for flight; right ovary is vestigial; it enlarges greatly during breeding season

Oviduct (distal): uterus

Oviparous/oviparity: the reproductive method of birds; eggs are laid with no embryonic development within the mother.

Ovum: egg released from ovary

Owlet: young owl

Owling: searching for owls at night by birders

Oximeter: device for measuring oxygen concentration in blood

Oximetry: measurement of oxygen concentration in pulse; device is applied to the skin to measure pulse rates and percent of oxygenated and reduced hemoglobin

Oxygen therapy: uses incubators to moniter heat and humidity; face mask for short term; used to stabilize birds during anemia, shock, dyspnea

Oxidize/oxidation: to combine with oxygen; chemical reaction in which oxygen is added to an element or compound; element loses hydrogen in process; can be destructive. Oxidation reactions commonly involve the combination with oxygen-free radicals, and result in major organ damage that accumulates with time; they are implicated in age-related damage, degenerative phenomena and cancer, and may be ameliorated with antioxidants, including vitamin C, vitamin E, glutathione and superoxide dismutase.

PCV: Packed Cell Volume; percentage of the volume of whole, unclotted blood occupied by RBC's

PVC hematocrit: lab test, monitors relative number of RBC's in blood; blood sample placed in tiny glass tube and spun in a centrifuge; cells heavier than plasma gather at one end of the tube; PCV determined as the percent of red cellular portion relative to total amount of blood in the tube; remainder is plasma

Pacheco's disease: liver disease; sudden death in a few days; signs: depression, ruffled feathers, yellow/green diarrhea, polyuria, polydipsia; caused by herpes virus; no treatment; transmitted in feces

Pair bond: relationship between male and female bird for nesting purposes, some for life

Palatal processes/palatine: medial or lateral palatine processes contribute to development of the palate and separation of oral and nasal cavities

Palatal slit: caudal half of the palate (toward the back); in birds it is divided by the median choanal slit

Palatine: of or near the palate

Palmate: webbed front toes, as in ducks

Palpation: to examine with hands/fingers to feel the texture, size, consistency and location of body parts or masses

Palliative: able to relieve symptoms but not cure a condition

Pallor: skin paleness

Palpebral: pertaining to the eyelid

Palpebral conjunctiva: membrane under eyelid; delicate mucous membrane covering internal part of eyelid; is attached to cornea

Palpebritis/blepharitis: inflammation of eyelid

Pamprodactyl: all four toes in front, e.g., swifts

Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency: malabsorption due to insufficient pancreatic enzymes; pancreas not secreting enough enzymes through pancreatic duct; weight loss, bulky, pale droppings

Pancreatitis: infection caused by bacteria, virus, or chlamydia infection and Vit E and selenium insufficientcy; severe, life-threatening; caused by fatty foods; signs: vomiting and painful abdomen

Pancytopenia: abnormal depression of all the cellular elements in the blood; caused by depression of activity of immune system (bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes) due to radiation, injury or poisoning

Panniculus (pl: panniculi): layer of membrane or tissue, esp.. a subcutaneous layer of fat

Pannicular reflex: quick twitch of back muscle in response to a pinprick in the thoraxolumbar area; determines location of lesion in spinal chord

Panniculiitis: inflammation of subcutaneous fat

Pannus: chronic condition of eye; blood vessels grow across the cornea (clear surface of eye); cornea looks hazy, red; eventually takes on dark pigment; aka Chronic Superficial Keratitis

Panthothenic acid: Vit. B5 found in meat, vegetables, cereal grains, legumes, eggs and milk; needed for skin health; deficiency causes feather dystrophy

Papillae: small, nipple-like projections on tongue and edges behind choanal slit; others found pointing towards back of throat in the oropharynx; also on uropygial gland

Papilloma/Papillomatosis: benign epithelial growth that is lobed; warty growth on mucosal tissue,feet, uropygial gland, corners and inside mouth, around beak, wings, eyelids, cloaca, intestines. Causes cloacal prolapse mostly in macaws and amazons; papillomas extend from an orifice; surgery is possible in area without damage to other structures; might go away on their own, but can become internal; benign tumor derived from epithelium; arises from skin conjunctiva, mucous membrane or glandular ducts; can be keratinized, fibrovascular or squamous

Papillomavirus: naked virus, specific to species, even specific to epithelial places on animal; virions stable and easily transmutable (subject to change); found in basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies

Papule: small, solid, round bump on skin; usually less than .5 cm in diameter; may open when scratched and become crusy and infected

Parabro: tiny tubes in bird lungs through which air moves in a one-way flow; oxygen and CO2 are exchanged in microscopic capillaries in spaces within parabronchial walls

Parabronchi: tiny passages in bird lungs that are the primary sites of gas exchange between air and blood; birds do not have alveoli as mammals do

Parakeratosis: abnormality of horny layer of skin resulting in disturbance of the process of keratinizaiton; cause is dietary deficiency

Paralysis syndrome: loss of motor mvt in a certain part of body; muscles may be flaccid (weak, no tone) or spastic (muscles are tight); wobbly gait, ataxia, lack of coordination, reluctance to walk; bird lies of floor of cage, has abnormal head mvts; mostly seen in cockatiels; cause is Vit. E and selenium deficiency

Paramyxovirus: causes Newcastle disease

Parasite: organism that feeds upon the tissues of a host organism; ectoparasite or endoparate; subcutaneous parasite penetrates outer body tissues of host and lives there

Parasitemia: presence of parasites in the blood

Parasympathetic nervous system: part of nervous system which stimulates the pancreas to produce digestive enzymes; stimulates many of the smooth muscles in the body, e.g., stomach and intestine; slows heart rate

Paratenic host: intermediate host of a parasite which transfers or transports it from one host to another; e.g., rats carry fleas responsible for disease

Parencentecis: surgical puncture of a cavity for aspiration of a fluid

Parenchyma: essential or functional elements of an organ, as distinguished from its stroma (connective tissue or an organ or framework)

Parenteral: means of administring drug, blood, or nutrients other than by mouth; subcutaneous, intramuscular, interosseus, intravenous,  injection

Paresis/paretic: partial motor paralysis; in leg, caused by enlarged kidney putting pressure on ischiatic nerve which goes into leg

Paronychia: bacterial or viral infecton of the claw

Partial Thickness wounds and healing: Wound is superficial, not penetrating the entire dermis. Type of healing seen with 1st degree burns and abrasions. Healing occurs mainly by epithelialization with little scarring

Parliament: group of owls

Particulate: small particle

Passerines: formerly known as Passeriformes;  songbirds

Passive immunity; produced by providing antibodies or immunologic cells from another source, such as colostrum; compare with active immunity

Patagium/Patagia/patagial: wing membrane, flat fold of skin connecting wrist joint to shoulder and ebow joints; structures in areas where wings, legs, tail and neck meet body; these and ventral tail region are common sites for ulcerative dermatitis; elastic fold of skin extending from the shoulder to the carpal joint 

  • Propatagium: elastic triangular fold of skin on the leading edge of the wing; tatoos placed there, surgical sexing done there; stretches from front of elbow to carpus
  • Metapatagium: area at the base of the patagium
  • Postpatagium: tough band of tendinous tissue that envelops and supports the quills of all the wing remiges from elbow to wingtip. The fleshier humoral patagium connects the elbow to the thorax.

Patagial marks: feathers associated with the area of wing joints

Patagial tags: bird bands attached to the propatagial area of the wing of a soaring bird that can be seen from the ground

Patch: localized skin color change greater than 1 cm in diameter

Patency: affording free pasage, as in air-sac tube; clears for passage of air

Pathogen/pathogenic: organism that causes disease: bacteria, parasite (protozoa), virus, fungus; any microbiological cell containing sufficient genetic information is capable of producing disease

Pathogenic organisms: capable of causing disease, either directly by infecting or indirectly by producing a toxin that causes illness

Pathogenesis: production and development of disease

Pathognomonic: distinctively or decisively characteristic of a particular disease; a pathognomonic symptom: specifically characteristic sign on which a diagnoisis is made; used to describe a symptom or sign that indicates almost beyond doubt the correct diagnosis of a disease

Pathologist: doctor who examines the changes in body tissues and organs caused by disease

Pathology/pathological: study of the nature, cause and development of abnormal conditions and disease; involves organ or tissue changes in structure and function; condition produced by disease

Pathonomia/pathonomic: science of the laws of a disease or morbid change

Pathophysiology: study of changes in function caused by disease

Pathotype: ascertains the kind of blood or tissue sample of a disease

PCR: Polymerase Chain Reaction: molecular diagnostic test: amplifies a fragment of DNA from minute quantities of DNA source material

PCV: packed cell volume: the percentage of the volume of whole, unclotted blood occupied by the erythrocytes; high PCV indicates dehydration

Peacock: male peafowl

Pectoralis muscles: largest and most powerful muscles in flying bird's body; contractions power the wings' downstrokes

Pedicle: foot-like, stem-like narrow basal part or structure, such as a narrow strip by which a graft of tissue remains attached to the donor site; e.g., the uropygial gland absess hanging down from the gland, or xanthoma hanging down from the wing

Pedunculated: having a peduncle or stalk; used to described tumors or growths

Peeps: general term for shorebirds

Pelagic: ocean-going birds that are seldom seen from land

Pen: female swan

Penicillinase: enzyme produced by some bacteria which inactivates certain types of penicillin, thus making the bacteria resistant to them.

Penile: a nest that is suspended between two forks of a limb with nothing supporting it from below

Penna: contour feather

Pennaceous: having the texture of a penna as opposed to a down feather

Peracute: extremely acute, of only a few hours' duration

Perception: ability to recognize senory stimuli; perception is received by nerve impulses that recognize temperature, touch, pain and pressure

Percutaneous: medicine that is administered or absorbed through the skin

Perforation: formation of a hole in an organ, tissue or tube; usually a consequence of disease

Perfuse/perfusion: to force fluid through tissue or organ by way of blood vessels; to permeate or spread throughout the body; liquid circulating through blood vessels or other channels within the body

Pericardial effusion: escape of fluid around heart

Pericardium: double-walled membrane surrounding the heart; Two layers: fibrous and serous; fibrous is tough external layer, serous is inner layer, thin, moist, transparent

Layers of the pericardium:

  • Epicardium: external layer, serous
  • Myocardium: middle, thickest layer, actual heart muscle
  • Endocardium: inner layer, lines chambers and valves

Perietal peritoneum: outer layer of peritoneam

Periosteal proliferation: reproduction or multiplication of similar cells; periosteal cells multiply too much; abnormal growth or increase in number of cells, creates swelling

Periostitis: inflammation of periosteum

Periostium: normal investment of bone, consisting of dense,tough,  fibrous outer layer to which muscles attach, and a deeper, more delicate, succulant, osteogenic  inner layer capable of forming bone; a specialized connective tissue covering all bones of the body and possessing bone-forming potentialities; is a point of attachment for certain muscles, tendons and ligaments; the connective tissues fuse with the fibrous layers of the periosteum

Peripheral nervous system (PNS) consists of cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic nervous system, and ganglia

Periportal: periportal zone is nearest to the entering vascular supply and receives the most oxygenated blood; near the portal vein of the liver

Periportal fibrosis: lesions in the periportal area of liver

Peristalsis: progressive waves and contractions and relaxations of the tubular muscular system, esp.. the alimentary canal; contents forced through GI system

Peritoneum: membrane lining the wall of the abdominal and pelvic cavities and covering some organs in this area

Peritonitis: inflammation of the peritoneum

Perivascular: around a blood vessel

Perivascular dermatitis: inflammatory dermatosis in which the reaction is centered around superficial or deep dermal blood vessels

Perosis: disease of young birds caused by nutritional deficiency;  excess calcium and deficiency of choline and magnesium: deformed leg bones above and below the joint, enlarged tibiotarsal joint; results in crippling and death

Petechia/petechiae/petechiation: A small, pinpoint, purplish spot on a body surface, such as the skin or a mucous membrane, caused by a minute hemorrhage; often seen in typhus.

Petinate: comb-like teeth on the  claws on some deep-water wading birds

Phacoemulsification: removal of cataract using ultrasound to disintegrate the cataract; then it is aspirated and removed; uses dorzolamide topical med.

Phacolysis: dissoluton of eye's crystalline lens

Phagocyte: WBC; absorbs foreign bodies in blood stream; "eats" damaged cells and foreign substances such as virus or bacteria; macrophage is a type of phagocyte

Phagocytic: any cell that ingests/destroys foreign particles

Phagocytosis: act of destroying the foreign particles

Phalanx: bones of a digit

Pharyngo-tympanic tubes: eutachian tubes in ears

Pharynx: in throat; air passes through nasal cavity to the pharynx; common passageway for the upper respiratory and GI tracts

Philopatry:birds migrating back to the same region where they hatched

Pheromone: chemical secreted by an animal and sensed by another of same species; causes reproductive behavior in that animal

Phlogistic: inflammation and fevers; anti-phlogistic: works against inflammation and fevers

Photoperiod: number of hours of light per 24-hour period

Photosensitivity: skin reacts abnormally to light, esp.. ultraviolet or sunlight; caused by interaction of light with certain chemicals in the skin, e.g., antibiotics, hormones, or toxins

Phylogeny: evolutionary history of any plant or animal species

Physiology: study of how the body functions

Piebald: two colors of feathers

Pileum: entire top of the head, including the forehead, crown, and occipital reagions

Piloerection: erection of feathers using erector muscles and depressor muscles; plays a part in thermoregulation; bird fluffs up in cold weather to trap body heat

Pin feather or blood feather: newly developing blood feather emerging from the skin; developing feathers that have blood flowing through them and can grow as new feathers or to replace molted feathers

Pinna/pinnae: feather, wing, or wing-like part; elongated feathers projecting from the upper body area, generally neck or head; external portion of the ear which birds do not have

Pinning: insertion of a metal rod into the medullary cavity of a long bone

Pipping: process of chick puncturing a small hole in shell at hatching

Piriform: pear-shaped

Pishing: sound generated by forcing air through lips to attract birds

Pityrosporum folliculitis/ Malassezia: inflammatory skin disorder that typically manifests itself as a pruritic, follicular papulopustular eruption distributed on upper trunk; affects young to middle-aged adult birds; yeast pathogen; linked to seborrheic dermatitis, folliculitis, pityriasis and atopic dermatitis; lesions are chronic, erythematous, pruritic papules and pustules; etiology: plugging of the follicle followed by overgrowth of yeast that thrives in the sebaceous environment;

Plaque: solid, raised lesion greater than .5 cm in diameter

Plasma: fluid portion of the blood in which red and white blood cells and thrombocytes are suspended; straw-colored fluid portion of blood that transports nutrients, hormones, and waste products; contains clotting proteins fibrinogen and prothrombin

Plasmid: small, independent circle of DNA

Platelets: cellular components found in the blood which help clots to form; In the body, microscopically small vessels, often break in normal living; platelets and fibrinogen protein "plug" the break in the vessel and prevent blood from leaking out

Pleomorphic/pleomorphism: having more than one shape or form

Plexus/plexi: a network of intersecting nerves or vessels

Plumage: bird's entire feather coat; set of feathers produced by a molt

Plumbism: lead poisoning

Plume: down feather

Plumulaceous: have the texture of a down feather

Plumy: having plumes or feathers

Pneumatic bones: hollow, no marrow, allows bird to be light enough for flight; long bones of wings and legs are air-filled (humerus, femur) as well as pelvic bones, some ribs, most vetebrae, some in head; all have large, air-filled medullary canals that are involved with the respiratory cycle during flight; these bones have a wide medulla (central cavity) and thin cortex (outer wall)

Pneumothorax: Collapsed lung.  Entry of air into the pleural cavity enough to cause collapse and resp. embarrassment; the presence of air or gas in the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs, causing pain and difficulty in breathing. Pneumothorax can occur spontaneously because of accidental rupture or perforation of the pleura or be due to injury or medical procedure.

Pododermatitis or bumblefoot; wounds on bottom of feet caused by rough or dirty perches, obesity, hypothyroidism (lack of iodine), Vit. E, A, or calcium deficiencies, stress, staph, trauma to foot, e.g., abrasion, puncture which allows entry of microorganismas and infections; deep infections spreads to tendons and joints, leads to septic necrosis of bone

Podotheca: non-feathered parts of legs

Poikilocytes: abnormally shaped erythrocytes

Pollex: thumb of the first digit of the wing, the alula

Polyandrous: female birds that have more than one mate

Polyarthritis: involves two or more joints

Polychromasia or polychromatophilia: variation in hemoglobin content of erythrocytes

Polycythemia: abnormally high number of circulating red blood cells

Polydactylism: additional digits on toes, hereditary

Polyderma: infection of the skin

Polydipsia: excessive thirst

Polyfolliculitis: more than one feather emerging from a single follicle; possible viral etiology; alternate explanation: the feather splits as it emerges.

Polygynandry: pertains to a bird species which pairs up to more than one mate. Extra-group or individual mate

Polygynous: group in which males and females have more than one mate

Polymorphic: birds which display multiple colors

Polyomavirus: inflicts young birds; enlarged abdomen, crop stasis, poor motility, subdermal hematomas, death in 2-3 days.   In older birds, abnormal rectrices and remiges, weight loss, poor growth; no treatment, vaccination available

Polyostotic hyperostosis: abnormal development of bone tissue; radiographic evidence suggestive of hyperestrogenism that appears as calcification of the medullary space of the long bones, esp. femur and humerus

Polyp: a small growth from mucous membranes such as those lining the nasal cavity and intestinal tract

Polyphasia: excessive eating or swallowing

Polyphyletic: derived or descended from several groups of ancestors

Polyuria: formation and excretion of high volume of urine due to diabetes, kidney disease or other disorder

Porphyrins: pigments related to hemoglobin and bile pigments formed in the liver; produce these colors: brown, bright red, greens, red-brown

Portal circulation: circulation of blood from digestive tract and spleen to the liver via the portal vein, and subsequently, out of the liver via the hepatic vein.

Postnuptial: bird that has one molt per year

Postocular spot: distinctly colored spot located behind the bird's eye

Postocular stripe: a distinctly colored stripe located behind the bird's eye

Postop/preop: before/after surgery

Potable: water that is free of pollutants and suitable to drink

Postpatagium: tough band of tendinous tissue that envelops and supports the quills of all the wing remiges, from elbow to wing tip.

Poult: young game bird

Pox virus: affects mostly young birds; virus can live on fomites for two years; causes pustules in or around eyes, lesions on skin and in mouth

  • Skin: Dry Pox; red, oozing sores becoming large and scabby, bacteria and fungi enter to become secondary infections
  • Wet Pox: gray/brown accumulations of cheesy pus  in mouth, throat, windpipe; if pus removed, leads to bleeding, can't swallow or breathe
  • Septicemia Pox: sudden onset of sleeping, ruffled feathers, heavy breathing; death within 3 days
  • Pathology: lungs hemorrhage, fatty liver, inflammation of small intestines, rarely seen in psittacines

Prebasic molt: the molt by which most birds replace all of their feathers, usually occurring annually after the breeding season.

Precocial: birds that hatch in a relatively developed state; have down feathers and open eyes; able to walk, swim, eat on their own

Precursor: substance from which another, more active or mature substance, is formed

Preening: feather maintenance: bird grasps a feather near the base, nibbles along the shaft toward the tip with a quivering motion; this cleans and smoothes the feather; uses sebum from uropygial gland and spreads it on the feathers as it preens

Premaxilla: bone which supports the maxilla or upper beak

Prepatent period: early days of infection;  the period between infection of the host and the earliest time at which the causative agent can be recovered from the patient or, in the case of parasites, eggs or larvae can be recovered from feces, urine or blood. It is usually shorter than the incubation period but may be longer in some parasitic infestations

Present: (pre-sent') how a disease appears with symptoms when examined

Prevaricate: walk crookedly, knock-kneed

Primaries: 9-10 or more outermost flight feathers, attached to the manus of wing

Primary coverts: short feathers that cover and protect the primary flight feathers

Primary and secondary feather numbering: numbering system which assigns a number to each primary feather for identification; primaries are counted from radiale/ulnare (#1) to the alula (#10); secondaries are counted from the manus joint to the humerus, 1-18

Primary projections: projection of the primaries beyond the tertials as seen from the side of a standing bird

Probang: long, slender, elastic rod with a sponge or ball at the end used to remove foreign bodies from the esophagus or larynx; also used to introduce medication

Proctodeum/proctodea: another name for bottom level of cloaca; carries cloacal bursa and proctodeal glands; holds phallic structure in male; the three chambers (urodeum, proctodeum, copradeum) are contained in the cloaca, divided by mucosal folds

Prognathia: abnormal protrusion of lower mandible

Prognathism or "Parrot Beak:" Mandibular prognathism occurs when the tip of the rhinotheca (upper beak) rests on or inside the gnatotheca (lower beak); most commonly seen in cockatoos; causes may include genetics, improper incubation or hand-feeding techniques. It is rarely seen in parent- raised birds. It is thought that when parent birds hook onto the chick's rhinotheca during feeding, they help to promote the normal development of the chick's beak;  treatment varies with the severity of the condition and the age of the bird. For some chicks, applying finger pressure several times daily may help, as will using a piece of gauze to apply traction to the upper beak during feeding. In an older bird, in which the beak has calcified, treatment generally involves the placement of an acrylic appliance on the beak. (Drs. Foster and Smith: Pet Education)

Prokinesis: increase in size of gape

Prokinetic: process of driving or propelling, stimulating movement or motility

Prokinetic drugs: enhance GI motility by increasing the frequency of contractions in the small intestine or making them stronger, but without disrupting their rhythm; new class of drugs for treating constipation, gas, bloating; enhance the passage of intraluminal contents of GI tract

Prolapse: falling down or slipping out ot place of an organ from its original position; protrusion of viscera through opening; downward displacement of organ as in cloacal prolapse

Proliferate/Proliferative: to grow or increase in numbers; rapid or repeated production of new parts (cells) by rapid succession of cell division

Proliferative granulomatous lesion: growing mass of necrotic granules or debris resulting in a lesion; rhinoliths become lesions which become infected with microorganisms

Promiscuous: bird groups who join together for mating purposes

Propatagium: elastic triangular fold of skin on the leading edge of the wing; tatoos placed there and surgical sexing done there; stretches from front of elbows to carpus

Prophylactic: preventive treatment

Proprioceptive: a receptor located in subcutaneous tissues, as muscles, tendons and joints, that responds to stimuli produced within the body; pertains to proprioceptors, the stimuli acting upon them, or the nerve impulses initiated by them

Proprioception: perception governed by proprioceptors, as awareness of the position of one's own body; the perception of stimuli produced within the organism

Proprioceptor: a sensory receptor located deep in the tissues (e.g., heart muscle, skeletal muscle, tendons, GI wall or sinus) that functions in proprioceptive response to changes in physical or chemical conditions within the body; any of the sensory nerve endings that give information concerning movement and position of the body; they occur in muscles, tendons and the labyrinth (inner ear)

Proptosis: forward displacement of the eye from the orbit

Prosthesis: artificial substitue for a missing body part

Protease: enzyme which breaks down protein

Proteins: complex molecules composed of strings of amino acids; main building blocks of all living organisms; also act as enzymes assisting chemical reactions

Protocol: plan for a course of treatment or scientific experiment

Protoplasm: term no longer used in scientific context; a semifluid, viscous, translucent colloid; the essential living matter of all animal and plant cells; it consists largely of water, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and inorganic salts, and is differentiated into nucleoplasm and cytoplasm

Protoporphyrin: a porphyrin whose iron complex unites with proteins to form hemoglobin

Protozoa: one-celled animals that often cause disease; e.g., coccidia, giardia

Proventriculous: upper, gastric stomach; secretes enzymes that break down food

Proximal or inferior umbilicus is the part going into the feather follicle.

PDD: Proventricular Dilatiation Disease: Avian Bornavirus etiology, causes inflammation of nerves in the brain and GI tract; ultimately results in dilation of digestive organs, poor digestive function,  wasting, and death; no cure or vaccine; Ganglioneuritis; Celebrex treatment. See

Pruritis/pruritic/prurigo: itching skin

Pseudomonas: (sudomo'nus) rod-shaped bacteria, pathogenic for plants and animals, gram neg.

Psylium: dietary fiber, mild laxative; plant with edible seeds

Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease (PBFD, Circovirus); affects mostly young cockatoos; abnormal feather growth, feather loss, shiny beak from lack of powder down, dusty feathers, feather color changes, infectious, respiratory symptoms, conjunctivitis, diarrhea, abnormal urates, slow onset, weight loss, listlessness, loss of rectrices and remiges, twisted deformed feathers; beak rots, immune system compromised; slow death,

Psittacine Pruritic Polyfolliculosis: self-mutilation, itching on rump, neck, shoulders, intense picking to ulcerated areas, feather follicles appear to produce more than one feather due to damaged feather emerging, feathers twisted, deformed or under skin; no treatment successful, no cure

Psittacosis titer: test for Chlamydia psittaci which causes psittacosis

Psychogenic: of mental origin

Pterygoid: shaped like a wing

Pterygoid bone: small skull bone that articulates with the sphenoid bone

Pteryla/pterylae: feather follicle tracks or rows

Pterylosis: pattern of feather distribution, includes pterylae and apteria

Ptosis: prolapse of an organ or part, paralytic drooping of upper eyelid

Pulmonary arteries: large vessels leading from heart to lungs

Pulmonary edema: fluid accumulation in lungs

Pulmonary emboli/embolism: blood clot that travels to the blood vessels in the lung and obstructs them

Pulse: edible seeds of luguminous crops, e.g., beans and peas

Punctured crop or esophagus:  A severe puncture wound in a baby bird caused by the wrong utensils when hand-feeding, the bird lunging at the syringe, the parents feeding too quickly and aggressively. Food may migrate under the skin or travel to the puncture wound. Signs are inflammation and swelling around the crop and an empty crop.

Pupil: dark, circular, hollow eye passage through which light enters

Purpura: hemorrhage into the skin that causes bruising; two types: ecchymosis and petecia

Purulent: having to do with pus

Pustule: small elevated area on the skin filled with pus; collects on epidermis or in the dermis; frequently forms in sweat glands or feather follicles; a pimple full of pus

  • Circumscribed pustule: contained in a limited area

Pygidium: fused bones making up the tail of the bird (pygostyle)

Pygostyle: tailbone; end-most bones of spinal column; holds the rectrices; if damaged, male may not be able to copulate successfully with hen

Pylorus: opening at distal end of stomach leading to duodenum; a splincter muscle which opens and closes as needed to allow food to empty into intestines

Pyoderma: infection of the skin; usually result of bacterial invasion; inflammatory skin disease caused by pus-forming microorganisms and marked by supperative lesions; often caused by S. aureus (Staph)

Pyometra: pus in uterine cavity

Pyriform: pear or egg-shaped

Pyuria: pus in urine

Quarantine area: holding area of isolation for newly arrived birds

Quill: stem of feather inbedded in flesh; stout, horny, cylindrical center of a feather

Race: same a sub-species

Rachis: central shaft of feather; bar running through a feather forming the quill

Radiale: Wrist joint between the radius and ulna bones and manus  carpometacarpus

Radiculopathy: refers to a set of conditions in which one or more nerves are affected and do not work properly; a neuropathy; results in pain, weakness, numbness, difficulty controlling specific muscles

Radiocarpal joint: joins the radius and carpals; the wrist

Radiograph: x-ray

Radiolucent: penetrable by electromagnetic radiation

Radio-ulna: bone in wing

Ramify: to divide or spread out into branches or branch-like parts; extend into subdivisions

Ramus/rami: the peaks in the front of the lower mandible; branch of a nerve, vein or artery

Range map: land images depicting the breeding area, migration route and winter ground of a species

Raptor: bird of prey

Ratite: class of large, flightless birds that are raised for their meat and hides; rheas, emus, ostriches.

Reabsorption/resorption: absorbing again, to take up; the lysis and assimilation of a substance; e.g., bone or fetus; takes matter back into body

Reagent: a substance used to produce a chemical reaction so as to detect, measure or produce another substance; e.g., adding vinegar to baking soda creates foam-forming carbon dioxide and salt; the two react to form CO2 and Sodium acetate (salt)

Receptors: sensory organs that receive external stimulation and transmit that information to the sensory neurons.

  • nociceptive: pain receptors
  • proprioceptive: receptors for spatial orientation or perception of movement

Recombinant: new cell or indiviual that derives some of its genetic material from one parent and some from another; genetically different individual

Recombinant vaccine: certain antigens on viruses and bacteria are better at stimulating an antibody response; the genes for these antigens can be isolated and made to produce large quantities of the antigens they code for; a recombinant vaccine contains these antigens, not the whole organism; compare with "modified live vaccine" and "killed vaccine"

Recrudescence: recurrence of clinical signs after a temporary abatement; relapse occuring after days, weeks, or months

Rectrix/rectrices: tail feathers; always paired; one central, one with 6 pairs; have coverts that lie over and under rectrices

Recumbent crest: crest that curves backwards and lies flat against the head

Recumbent position or recumbency: lying down/ resting;

  • Dorsal R.: lying on the back (supine)
  • Ventral R.: (sternal) lying on the belly (prone)
  • Left lateral R. lying on left side
  • Right lateral R. lying on the right side

Recursive crest: one that curves forward, as in the cockatiel

Recurved: curved upward toward tip

Red count: PCV measurments of red blood cells to serum after spinning down; measures anemia vs. normal red count

Reflex: automatic, involuntary response to change; e.g., patellar and ulnar reflexes

Refractory: resisting ordinary methods of treatment

Regulation: using glucogen to maintain blood glucose level of an bird within the acceptable range

Regurgitation: bringing up partially digested food from crop back into mouth and out; differs from vomiting in which food is expelled forcefully from the proventriculus

Remix/remiges: large flight feathers on wings

Renal capsule: enclosed structure; fatty, cartilaginous or fibrous structure enclosing an organ or part; renal capsule means kidney is enclosed

Renal failure: inability of kidneys to function; acute or chronic

Renal infarction: obstruction of blood flow to kidneys

Renal insufficiency: decreased ability of the kidneys to rid the body of wastes

Reovirus: causes hepatitis

Resistance: describes bacteria which have mutated or changed; no longer affected by an antibiotic that previously killed them or slowed their growth

Respiratory system: used for breathing and cooling; no sweat glands in birds; birds pant to expel excess heat and stabilize body temps

Retained feather's blood supply: blood stays in the calamus as feather pulp instead of nourishing growing feather

Retained feather sheath: heavily keritanized around calamus instead of surrounding growing feather

Reticulate scales: small, net-like scales (tarsus) covered with a network pattern; marked with lines; composed of alpha-keratin

Reticulocyte: immature RBC that contains a network of fibers of ribosomal RNA (cluster of proteins)

Reticulum: structured part of protoplasm

Retina: rear, interior surface of eyeball (fundus); contains nerve cells (rods and cones); rods sensitive to light and cones to color; retina receives the light and color and converts them into nerve impulses which to to the brain

Retinaculum: structure that holds an organ or tissue in place, such as a ligament

Retinol: Vit A

Retrobulbar: behind the eyeball

Retroperitoneal: superficial to the peritoneum

Rhampotheca: horny covering of entire beak; bones of the beak are covered with a thick, modified integument, entirely on the outside and partly in the lining of the mouth; this is called the rhamphotheca; hard and heavily cornified in most birds, yet flexible in the flexion zone of the maxilla; Maxillary rhamphotheca or rhinotheca is upper mandible, holds cere and nares;

Mandibular rhamphtheca or gnathotheca is lower mandible

Rhinitis: inflammation of nasal mucous membranes. Mucus may contain pus

Rhinolith: a mass (concretion) formed just inside the nares from desiccated secretions or debris; may cause physical obstruction to proper breathing, disfigures the nares; damages the operculum

Rhinorrhea: excessive exudation from nose

Rictal: refers to corners of the mouth

Rictal brisles: short, stiff feathers near the beak; serve a tactile, sensory function

Rictus: base of the beak where the mandibles join; aka gape, commissure; gape is mouth wide open

Ringer's solution: tissue-sustaining fluid; a solution of inorganic salts used to sustain cells, tissues, or organs outside the body; used to treat shock

Rookery: place where large numbers of birds come together to nest and roost.

Roost: resting site used by birds

Rostrum: beak or bill

Rump: area between upper tail coverts and back of bird; has shorter feathers of same color as body

Rupture: forcible tearing

Salmonella: bacteria causing systemic, intestinal and liver disease; zoonotic

Sacculitis: infection of the saccula: smaller of two sacs in the membrane labyrinth of the inner ear

Safronine: purplish-red color

Saline: solution of salt (sodium chloride) and sterile water; contains same proportions of these components as does the blood: .9% salt and water

Salivary glands: in birds,  in roof of mouth, on floor of mouth, and in tongue

Salpingectomy/ salpingohysterectomy: excision of the salpinx (uterus or shell gland)

Salpingitis: inflammation of salpinx

Salpinx/salpinges: oviduct or uterus; trumpet-like tube as in fallopian tube

Salt gland (aka sweat gland):  a gland, located in the head of seabirds, that secretes into the nasal passages the excess salt imbibed or ingested

Sarcocytosis: parasitic disease, usually of food animals

Sarcoma: type of cancer that starts in bone or muscle; tumors made of cancerous bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, vascular, or hematopoitic tissues; different types named after specific tissues they affect; e.g., fibrosarcoma is in fibrous connective tissue

Scale: accumulation of loose fragments of the top layer of skin

Scapulars: short feathers in the area where back and wings join; seen at top of bird's wing

Scar: mark left by a healing lesion where excess collagen was produced to replace injured tissue, aka cicatrix or cicatrices, multiple scars

Scissors beak: a lateral deviation of the rhinotheca. It is a developmental abnormality that occurs most commonly in cockatoos and macaws. It is thought to be caused by improper temperature during artificial incubation, genetics, or incorrect feeding techniques. Other possible causes include calcium deficiency, trauma, or a viral or mycobacterial infection. Treatment varies with the severity of the problem and the age of the bird. In young birds with mild deviations, simply applying finger pressure to the appropriate side of the beak for several minutes 2-3 times daily may correct the problem. In older birds, or those with more severe deviations, an avian veterinarian may need to perform surgery and apply a type of acrylic prosthesis (splint) to correct the abnormal growth

Scleral ossicles: bone within the sclera of the eye

Sclerification: production in the skin of many small superficial scratches or punctures, as for introduction of vaccine

Sclerosis: hardening of tissue; result of chronic inflammation

Scutellate/scuttelation (skootelate): a scaly covering  on the bird's foot; having large, bony plates; large scales on the tops of toes of pigeons and other similar birds

Scutellation pattern: the scale pattern on the feet

Sebaceous: relating to or producing a waxy, yellowish, body- oil secretion, sebum

Sebaceous adenitis: inflammation of a sebaceous gland

Sebaceous glands: small, oil-producing glands in ear canal and uropygium. Releases fatty substance, sebum, e.g., uropygial gland

  • Exocrine sebaceous glands: secrete chemical substances (sebum) into ducts that lead out of body or to another organ, part of integumentary system; lubricate the skin and discourage bacterial growth on the skin
  • Endocrine sebaceous glands: secrete their substances directly into bloodstream; these are ductless

Sebaceous cyst: closed sac of yellow fatty fluid or semi-solid material

Sebum: semi-fluid secretion of the sebaceous glands, consists chiefly of fat, keratin, cellular material, and dead skin cells. An oily substance that lubricates the feathers and skin and gives some protection against bacteria

Secondary flight feathers: attached to ulna, used for lift in flight

Secondary infection: infection which occurs because the tissue and its natural defenses have been damaged by another condition

Secondary response: the faster and greater immune response produced by an animal who has previously encountered that specific antigen; memory cells are responsible for this more-efficient response; aka "anamnestic response."

Second generation: medications developed from an earlier form of the med; first generation meds were developed from the original form of the drug; successive generations based on the one previous to them

Second intention: (secondary union): a manner or process of healing; occurs when a gaping wound fills with granulated tissue and is then covered from the sides with epithelium; wound repair following tissue loss, as in ulceraton or open wound; granulation bridges the gap between the edges

Secrete: to discharge or empty a substance into the bloodstream or a cavity or onto the surface of the body. The substance secreted is called a secretion. Glands that secrete internally are endocrine or
ductless glands; glands that secrete into a cavity or onto the surface are exocrine or
duct glands.

Secretory: an organ that performs the process of secretion

Seizure: sudden, involuntary contraction of some muscles caused by a brain disturbance; aka convulsion

Seizure threshold: the level of stimulation at which a seizure is produced; raising the seizure threshold makes it less likely a seizure will occur

Selenium: non-metallic, chemical element;  occurs in several forms; incorporated into proteins that prevent cell damage from free radicals (natural by-products of oxygen metabolism that may contribute to development of diseases); helps regulate thyroid function and plays a role in immune system function

Self-antigens: normal body cells

Foreign antigens: antigens unlike the self; autoimmune disease occurs when body becomes intolerant of its own cells

Semi-altricial: young birds hatched with eyes open, down feathered, but do not have the ability to leave the nest

Semi-colonial: birds of the same species who nest fairly close to one another and get along

Semi-parasitic: birds which lay eggs in other birds' nests, but also lay eggs in their own nests

Semi-precocial: young birds hatched with eyes open, down-covered, have the ability to leave the nest but choose not to

Sentinel birds: birds that are susceptible to a particular disease and may be placed in a potentially contaminated area to detect disease; usual mortality in sentinel bird populations should cause suspicion of disease contagion to all birds in inventory; also the bird in the flock that keeps watch

Sepsis/septic: presence of toxins in the blood or other tissues; toxins are produced by bacteria or other microorganisms

Septicemia: invasion and persistence of pathogenic bacteria in the bloodstream; blood poisoning; result of infection; bacteria multiplies and overwhelms the body, resulting in death; affects many organ systems; signs: fever, pinpoint bruising on mucous membranes, lesions in the joints, heart valves, eyes, other organs; treatment is antibiotics

Septum/septal: dividing membrane; no nasal septum in birds

Sequela/sequelae: conditions resulting from and following a disease

Sequester: to separate or detach a small portion from the whole

Sequestrum (bone): fragment of dead bone that becomes detached from the sound portion; necrotic fragment; a piece of dead bone that has become separated during the process of necrosis from a normal, sound bone

Seroconvert: to produce specific antibodies in response to the presence of an antigen, such as a bacterium or virus, creating immunity; bird can contract a virus, remain asymptomatic, pass it on; bird becomes immune but able to shed the organism to other birds

Seroconversion: Seroconversion is the point in time when the number of antibodies in the blood exceeds the amount of antigen, and the antibody becomes detectable. Before seroconversion, the antigen is detectable, but the antibody is not.

Serology: science that treats serums and their reactions and properties, esp.. concerned with antibodies and antigens

Serosa/serosae/serosal: same as serous membrane; outermost delicate layer of serous connective tissue and mesothelial cells that enclose an organ or line a body cavity

Serosanguinous fluid containing or relating to both blood and the liquid part of blood (serum). It usually refers to fluids collected from or leaving the body. For example, fluid exiting a wound that is serosanguineous is yellowish with small amounts of blood.

Serositis: inflammation of the serous membrane

Serotonin; a neurotransmitter, which is a chemical that serves as a messenger between nerves

Serotype: a subdivision of a species of microorganism; e.g., a bacteria, based upon its particular antigens

Serous membrane: thin, moist, transparent membrane that lines the body cavities and surrounds the internal organs; e.g., the peritoneum that lines the abdomen; any thin membrane that consists of a single layer of thin, flat, mesothelial cells resting on connective tissue or a connective tissue stroma, secretes a serous fluid, and lines body cavities or encloses organs contained in such cavities

Serum: liquid portion of blood with clotting proteins removed; plasma from which the red and white blood cells have been removed; watery portion of the blood that results when the blood has been allowed to clot; the clot is then removed; the clot contains the cells

Serrate: with teeth-like saw (cutting edge of the beak)

Setae/bristle feathers: sensitive bristles that grow on the heads of many birds.

Sexual dimorphism: male and female of same species have different markings; physical or behavioral differences between females and males of a given species

SGOT/SAST: used as a liver test; tests  the enzyme found in multiple tissues, such as liver, heart, muscle

Shallow Acinar: smallest secreting portion of a holocrine sebacious gland; on fold of skin on floor of ear canal; ear wax traps particles and keeps ear canal clear

Shedding of organisms: release of pathogens into the environment from an infected animal; may be in stool, urine, respiratory secretions, vomitus

Shigella: nasty gram-negative bacteria; causes diarrhea, can kill

Shock: result of trauma; inadequate tissue perfusion; signs: apathy, anorexia, loss of voice, dyspnea, sitting on floor, closed eyes, ruffled feathers to conserve body heat, pale mucous membranes; treatment: Get to vet immediately; avoid stress, place in warm, quiet place, administer fluids, Ringer's Solution; If necessary, oxygen therapy, NSAIDS

Shoulder feathers: short feathers overlying the median secondary coverts on top of the wing near the back; can be seen as the first row of feathers on the wing; also called marginal coverts and lesser secondary coverts

Signalment: detailed description; distinctive features for diagnosis of disease

Single-brooded: birds that nest only once per nesting season

Sinuses: open-air spaces found in head (see concha); one sinus is behind the eye, which is why some birds with respiratory illness and sinus infection develop swelling and discharge from the eye

Sinusitis: inflammation of sinuses

Skein: V-flying formation seen in ducks and geese

Skeleton: bones of the body; divided into two parts:

  • axial skeleton: the framework of the body that includes the skull, auditory ossicles, hyoid bones, vertebral column, ribs, and sternum
  • Appendicular skeleton: the framework of the body that consists fo the extremeities, shoulder and pelvic girdle.  (Append means to add or hang, so appendages or extremeties are structures that hang from the axial skeleton)

Skin/integumentary system: One of the largest organ systems of the body; involved in protection from infection, waterproofing of body, preventing fluid loss, providing species-specific coloration, providing a site for Vit.. D synthesis; Contains sebaceous exocrine glands

Skin Appendages: glands, feathers, scales, claws, beaks, nails

Skin cytology: examination with microscope of skin scraping or swab; material may be stained and checked for yeast, bacteria, tumors

Skin scraping: taking a scraping off the surface of the skin for microscopic exam; e.g., to check for mites, bacteria

Skylarking: flight pattern put on by male birds; the bird flies high into the sky and flutters to the ground while singing and calling

Small intestine: where most of the absorption of nutrients takes place; liver and pancreas are connected to this tube through ducts

Smooth muscle: found in internal organs such as stomach and intestines, not in heart

Snood: skin hanging from above a male turkey's beak

Soluble carbohydrates and fiber: easily digested and absorbed

Insoluble: passes through

Somatosensory receptors: relating to sensory stimuli from skin and internal organs; perception of the stimuli; receptors receive the stimuli

Spatulate: spoon-shaped bill

Species: level of classification below "genus." Individuals share distinctive characteristics and are not likely to breed with other species

Specificity: being peculiar to a particular individual or group; host specificity of a pathogen, e.g., parasite

Spectacles: combination of eye ring and suproloral line; large eye ring connected to the lores, displaying a look of eye-wear

Spermatocyte: type of gametocyte that produces sperm

Sperm nests: clusters of spermatozoa held in readiness in the infundibulum to fertilize the egg as it comes from the ovary

Spirochete: type of bacteria; long, slender, spiral-shaped

Spishing: creating sounds with the lips to attract birds into view

Splanchnic: pertains to viscera; group of sympathetic nerves serving the blood vessels and viscera of the abdomen

Spleen: part of immune system; abdominal organ containing many lymphocytes; large, tongue-shaped organ; filters blood, removes damaged cells; manufactures new blood cells if bone marrow is damaged

Spore: reproductive cell or seed of algae, fungi, or protozoa

Sputum: mucous secretion from lungs, trachea, and bronchi

Squamous: covered with or resembling scales; plate-like

Squamous cell carcinoma: arises from squamous epithelium, relatively common; occurs on conjunctiva, mouth, salivary ducts, some organs, and skin

Squamous epithelium: composed of flat, plate-like cells arranged in many layers. Because of that this layer is call "stratified squamous epithelium0;" The epidermis is made up of these cells

Squeaking: sound made by birds to attract birds or have them come into view

SSRI: selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: meds which slow down the ability of nerve cells to absorb serotonin; e.g., Prozac

Staphylococcus (S. aureus): bacteria associated with skin infections

Stain: pigment or dye used to color tissue for aiding identification under microscope

Stasis: in the GI tract, a condition in which the food does not move through normally but remains in one section

Status epilepticus: animal exhibits one severe seizure (Grand mal) right after another, with no time to recover in between

Stenosis: narrowing or restricting of a passage, such as a blood vessel or intestine

Sterilize: destroy all organisms including bacterial endospores

Steroidogenesis: production of steroids by adrenal glands

Sternum/Sternal: breastbone, keel; wing muscles attached to it

Stimulus/stimuli: something that excites or activates.

Stomatitis: inflammation of the mouth or other small apertures; stoma can be artificial opening between hollow organ and outside of body; e.g., to pass wastes

Stratified: to form or arrange in layers

Stress marks/fret marks: caused by periods of stress during feather formation; any stress will cause it; changes in temp, new house, emotional stress, etc. Stress releases endogenous corticosteroids

Stricture: abnormal narrowing of a passage in an organ such as a blood vessel or intestine

Stridor: roaring sound during respiration, harsh respiratory sound heard during inspiration in laryngeal obstruction

Stripes: feather color that runs the length of a bird's body

Stroma: connective tissue or framework of an organ, gland, or other structure, as distinguished from parenchyma

Strongyle: nematode parasite, worm

Stupor: state of mental dullness; failure to normally respond to stimulus

Subcapsular: beneath/below a membranous sac or integument

Subchondral bone: the  bone below the cartilage; provides support for the cartilage on the articular surface

Subclinical: disease below clinical level: bird is ill but not showing signs; early stage or mild form of disease

Subcutaneous layer of skin: (hypodermis) located beneath the dermis; composed of connective tissue; contains fat cells that produce lipid

Subcutanous emphasema: Trauma or puncture of an air sac will cause air to be trapped under the skin, creating large balloons;.

Sometimes air sac punctured by the parents, but surgery can correct the problem

Subluxation: partial dislocation of a joint in which the bones become out of alignment but the joint itself is still intact

Subserous/subserosal: situated or occurring under a serous membrane

Sub-species: or races; identifies different birds belonging to the same species but show no noticeable difference among themselves

Subterminal band: a distinct band seen at the base of the tail feathers in wild birds

Subterminal spots: (mirrors) spots seen on the outer tip of the primary feathers, mostly in gulls

Sulci/sulcus: a groove or fissure between two convolutions of the brain

Sulfonamides: class of antibiotics which contain sulfur; they are bacteriostatic, stopping the growth of bacteria without killing them

Superciliary line: arch of feathers growing overtop the bony arch of each eye; same location as human eyebrow; aka supercilium or eyebrow; outlines the face of the bird

Superspecies: races of birds in which each has its own geographical location

Superior umbilicus: area on shaft of a feather closest to the barbs and afterfeather

Suppurative/supperate: to produce or discharge pus, as a wound; the pus itself

Supraloral line: the line above the lore; in many species it is the brightly colored line between the eye and beak

Supraventricular tachycardia: heart beats very rapidly because of signals coming from the atrium or near the junction of the atria with the ventricles

Sustentacular tissue cells or fibers whose only function is to serve as a support for other tissue

Suture: to stitch or close an area; also refers to the material used in closing a surgical or traumatic wound with stitches; material may be absorbable or non-absorbable

Swoop: descent of bird of prey

Sympathetic nervous system: (SNS) one of the 3 major parts of the autonomic nervous system (others are enteric and parasympathetic systems); its action is to mobilize the body's nervous system fight-or-flight response; constantly active at a basic level to maintain homeostasis

Sympathomimetic: producing effects similar to the flight-or-fight response; effects include increased heart rate, sweating, increased blood pressure

Sympatry: different species together in same area

Synchronous hatching: all chicks hatch at same time.

Syncope: temporary loss of consciousness, fainting

Syndactyl: two front toes partially joined, as in kingfishers

Synechia: adhesion of iris to cornea or lens

Synergist: agent that enhances the action of another

Syngamiasis: roundworm infestation

Synostosis: normal or abnormal union of 2 or more separate bones to form a single bone; fixed bones through attachment; e.g., tarsometatarsus

Synovia/synovial membrane: certain membranes, esp. joints, secrete a lubricating fluid resembling egg whites

Synovial: pertaining to a joint made of bone ends and ligaments covered with cartilage; a cavity filled with synovial fluid and an outside fibrous capsule; e.g., hip or elbow joint

Synovial fluid: bursa and synovial joints have inner lining called synovial membrane; it secretes a fluid which acts as a lubricant to make joint movement smooth

Synovitis: inflammation of a synovial membrane

Synphysis: a fibrocartilaginous fusion between two bones; a type of cartilaginous joint; a slightly movable joint; a growing together of part or structures; symphyses are permanent

Synsacrum: last 2 vertebrae of lower back (pelvis) and first 2 tail vertebrae joined as a unit for purpose of flight

Syrinx: organ at the base of the trachea; there, it branches and bifurcates to form the primary bronchi; used for sound production

Syringeal membrane: real sound producers are the muscles that surround the syringeal membranes. As air passes over these membranes they begin to vibrate, and while they are vibrating, the surrounding muscles apply controlled tension which results in sounds of varying pitches

Systemic: refers to total body involvement

Tachycardia: rapid heart beat

Tachypnea: excessively rapid respiration rates

Tactile: perception of touch sensation

Tail: long feathers extending from pygostyle; used for balance, copulation, and attracting mates

Tail coverts: short feathers covering the bases of the long tail feathers

Tail numbering: system of assigning a number to each tail feather; conveys certain characteristics about a species

Talons: elongated claws on birds of prey

Tarsal: the lower leg that contains the tarsometatarsus or ankle/foot bones

Tarsometatarsus: the bone underlying the tarsus; consists of fused bones; between ankle and foot

Tarsorraphy: suturing of a portion of or entire upper and lower eyelids in order to shorten or close the palpebral fissure

Tarsus/tarsi: lowest segment of leg before the toes; between the knee and the foot

Taste buds: lie at base of tongue, on roof of the oropharynx on either side of the choana, and on floor of the oropharynx in the front end of the laryngeal mound

Taxonomy: classification of organisms in an ordered system that indicates relationships: Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species, Sub-species

T-cell, T-lymphocytes: circulating cells responsible for cell-mediated immunity; made in the thymus organ in neck, stored in the spleen, found in the blood; T-cells may directly kill a cell or produce chemicals called lymphokines that activate macrophages which will kill the cell. Compare with "B cell."

T-cells are responsible for cell-mediated immunity and directly attack the invading antigen; cell-mediated immunity is most effective against viruses, cancer cells, and foreign-tissue cells that infect body cells

Temperature: 105-107 in birds; birds less capable of maintaining body temp than mammals

Temporal canthus: outer corner of the eye closest to the ear

Tenacious: viscid, having a glutinous or sticky consistency, adhesive

Tendon: band of fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone

Tenesmus: difficulty passing droppings due to papillomas

Tenotomy: surgical cutting or division of a tendon

Teratatomas: tumor made up of different types of tissue; usually found in ovary or testes

Territory: region determined by breeding pairs and defended from predators

Tertials/tertiary feathers: short remiges  or flight feathers attached to humerus (basal joint of the wing) next to the secondaries;


  • Parallel: different tests at same time
  • Serial: repeated tests over time
  • Test sensitivity and specificity: Tests that determine a test's usefulness
  • Sensitivity is a measure of the test's ability to accurately detect antibodies in an infected bird; identifies diseases early
  • Specificity is the percent of non-infected birds that test negative

Tetany: condition usually due to low blood calcium (hypocalcemia);  characterized by cramps, spasms of the hands, feet, larynx; bird has overactive neurological reflexes

Third intention: manner of healing (delayed primary closure); occurs when a wound is initially too contaminated to close; is then closed surgically 4-5 days after the injury; drains are inserted to provide an outlet for removing accumulations of serosanguinous fluid and purulent material and for obliterating dead space

Thoracic click: a clicking sound heard in the chest, usually from the lungs and/or air sacs hitting the thoracic wall when a bird is breathing very hard, as in a stressful situation.

Thrombocytopenia: low level of platelets

Thymoma: lymphoma of thymus gland in neck

Tibia: leg bone between the knee and ankle

Tissue: a group of specialized cells that are similar in structure and function. Four types:

  • Epithelial: covers internal and external body surfaces (skin)
  • Connective: adds support and structure to a body part; holds organs in place and binds parts together
  • Muscle: has specialized ability to contract and relax
  • Nervous: has specialized ability to react to stimuli and conduct electrical impulses

Titer: a measure of the number of antibodies in the blood

Toes: Zygodactyl in parrots; Digits 2,3 point forward, digits 1,4 point back. Numbered from hallux toe (short inside back toe) clockwise on the right foot, counterclockwise on the left.

Tom: male turkey

Tomium/tomia: cutting edge of maxilla and mandible on side of beak; referred to as upper and lower mandibular tomia

Tonometry: measure of tension or pressure; e.g., intraocular pressure

Torticollis: stiff neck caused by spasmodic contractions of the muscles; animal draws head to one side with chin pointing to the other side; aka wryneck; often caused by trauma  

Tortuous: full of bends, turns, twists

Totipalmate: all toes joined by webs as in waterfowl

Toxemia: a condition in which toxins move into the bloodstream

Toxic: toxicity of cells; refers to being poisoned; detoxification refers to removing toxin

Toxin: the poisonous, causative agent of disease; of plant or animal origin

Toxic heterophils:  toxic heterophil is "sick" from fighting disease; serious; an example of abnormal leukocyte morphology

Trabecula (trabeculae): small beam or supporting structure; fibromuscular bands or cords providing support to various organs; in bone they form a meshwork of intercommunicating spaces which are filled with marrow or air in birds, depending on whether long, pneumatic bones or smaller bones

Trachea: windpipe

Tracheitis: infection/inflammation caused by bacterial or viral agent

Tracheal mucosa: consists of smooth, stratified squamous epithelial tissue

Tracheobronchitis: inflammation of the trachea and bronchi

Tract: group of nerve fibers located in the CNS

Trailing edge of wing: edge seen when wing is stretched out in flight and viewed from the rear: leading edge is the area in the front part of the extended wing

Transcutaneous: medications applied directly through the skin, as in creams

Transdermal: medications delivered across the skin, as in pain patches

Transient: a bird seen in an area located between its breeding and non-breeding zones

Transfusions: IV infusion best taken from same bird or same species

  • Autologous blood donation: derived from the same individual;  previously donated blood; individual receives his own blood
  • Homologous transfusion: IV infusion of blood that has been donated by another bird of same species
  • Heterologous: blood received from individual of a different but related species; e.g., from a lovebird to a cockatiel; least desirable method

Transmission: disease transfer

  • Horizontal: from one animal to another; vertical: through the egg, parent to offspring

Transport host: animal or insect which carries an immature parasite from one host to another

Transillumination: to throw a light across or through an organ as a means of diagnosis

Transudate/transudation: to pass through a membrane

Trepanation: creating a temporary opening in sinuses so that antibiotic solutions can be instilled over a period of time

Trephine: surgical instrument (crown saw) used to cut out circular sections

Tremors: uncontrolled shaking

Trichoepithelioma: uncommon condition; single lesion or multiple benign tumors arise on the face after puberty; rounded skin nodule that may ulcerate

Trichomoniasis: disease of GI tract caused by trichomonas, a flagellated protozoan

Tricyclic antidepressant: works by decreasing the amount of certain chemical transmitters taken up by specific nerve cells; used to treat behavioral problems in small animals;  they act by inhibiting reuptake of norepinephrine and serotonin by blocking the transporters responsible for reuptake of these neurotransmitters.

Tri-chrome: test for giardia and other protozoa; suspends the parasites, making them easy to find

Trocar: sharp, pointed instrument enclosed in a cannula; used for withdrawing fluid from a cavity, as the abdominal cavity

Trochanter: either of two knobs at the top of femur; greater on the outside and lesser on the inside; serves as attachment of muscles between the thigh and pelvis

Trochlear: the bony or fibrous structure through which or over which tendons pass, or with which other structures articulate; e.g., femoral bones: the articular surface on the cranial aspect of the distal femur upon which the patella glides

Tropism/tropic: involuntary response of an organism or one of its parts toward or away from a stimulus, such as heat or light; movement in response to a stimulus; having and affinity for a specific body part, e.g., neurotropic virus

Truncus/trunci: main body part to which head and limbs are attached; trunk; a large structure such as a vessel or nerve, from which smaller divisions arise

Trunk: whole body section between neck and tail; contains:

Thorax: bounded by rib cage, sternum (keel) and vertebral column (backbones)

Abdomen and pelvis: not separated by well-defined boundaries

Tubercle: a round nodule, small eminence, or warty outgrowth found on bones or skin, or in TB, in lungs

Tuberosities: an elevation or protuberance, esp.. one on the bone where a muscle is attached

Tubule: microscopic ducts; tubules in the kidneys concentrate the urine

Tumors: abnormal tissue growth resulting in a mass that may be benign or malignant

Wing tumors: swellings or masses anywhere on wing; large masses with muscles or skin on wings; Bone tumors: require surgery for amputation immediately

Tunica media: middle coat of blood vessels

Turbid: cloudy, as in urine

Turgid/Turgidity: swollen, distended, hardened

Turgor/turgescence: normal rigid state of cells caused by outward pressure of water content of each cell on its membrane

Tympanum/Tympani: eardrum or cavity of inner ear.

Typhitis (cecitis): inflammation of cecum or large intestine

Ubiquitous: found everywhere, around the world

Ulcer: lesion in which the tissue surface is eroded away

Ulceration: open sores

Ulnar vein: vein by the ulna bone in forearm, opposite the alula, used for blood draw

Ultrasound: used in larger birds to characterize lesions, wounds, injury, disease

Underparts: visible when viewing from below when bird is in flight: belly, undertail coverts, chest, flanks, foreneck, underwings

Undertail coverts: feathers in a triangular area on the undersurface of a bird between vent and base of tail feathers (crissum)

Underwing: bottom side of wing

Underwing coverts: small feathers that cover the base of the bird's underwing

Upperparts: visible when viewing from top: back, rump, hindneck, wings and crown

Uppertail coverts: small feathers that cover the base of the upper side of the tail feathers and rump

Upperwing: seen from top view

Undifferentiated cells: in neoplasia refers to a primitive cell type having no special structure or function as yet; immature cell, likely to be malignant

Differentiated cells: marked or formed differently from other cells; distinct; changed from a generalized form into a form specialized for a tissue, organ or other body part

Unthrifty: dull, listless, underweight, poor health

Upper tail coverts: single row of feathers covering the bases of the tail feathers (rectrices)

Urates: white portion of the droppings, crystalline urine; chemical compound which contains uric acid; made by the kidney and can form crystals and stones in the urodeum (urinary bladder); Uric acid is a waste product from the breakdown of certain proteins;

Abnormal colors:

yellow or green =liver disease; brown, rust-red= heavy metal toxicity

Urate fraction: urate part of the droppings

Urea: wasteproduct of protein metabolism that is removed from body by the kidneys

Urease: (yur-ee-ase) An enzyme that breaks down urea;

Uremia: waste products in the blood, as in kidney disease

Ureter: tube that carries urine from kidney to urinary bladder to cloaca

Uric acid: end product of protein metabolism; main nitrogenous waste; elevations occur with significant kidney disease

Uricemia: increased uric acid in the blood; leads to gout

Uricosuric: excreting of uric acid in urine

Urinary system: removes wastes by filtering blood; urea is major waste product of protein metabolism; it is filtered by the kidney and used to determine health status of kidney; system maintains proper balance of water, electrolytes and acids in body fluids and removes excess fluids from body; maintaining proper balance of these allows body to achieve homeostasis

Urinary tract infection (UTI): invasion of microorganisms in the urinary tract; results in local cellular injury

Urodeum: part of cloaca that holds urine, urates, sperm and egg; middle and smallest chamber in cloaca; separated from other two by mucosal folds; ureter and left  oviduct open into urodeum

Urolith/urolithiasis/cystolith: stony masses in urinary tract

Uropoisis: process of urine production

Uropygial gland: sebaceous gland; papilla on top of uropygium that secretes oils for preening; the oil:

  • keeps skin supple and feathers and scales from becoming brittle; --has waterproofing effect in some species;
  • has antibacterial and anti-mycotic properties
  • has an odorant and pheromonal function; sense of smell is better developed in birds than formerly realized;
  • plays a role in reducing skin infections, sex identification;
  • secretions reflect ultra violet light which birds can see;
  • helps body absorb Vit. D

Uropygium: fleshy posterior end supporting the tail

Uterus: portion of the female reproductive tract in birds that produces the shell and shell pigments; also the area in which the egg turns around so that it is laid blunt end first

Uveitis: inflammation of the iris

Vaccine/vaccination: given to establish resistance or immunity to an infectious disease; a suspension of infectious agents, either killed or weakened

Vacuoles: spaces or cavities in cell cytoplasm

Vagina: portion of the female reproductive tract in birds that directs the egg to the cloaca

Vagrant: a bird seen outside its breeding zones or natural habitat

Vagus nerve: Cranial nerve X, controls the GI system and heart

Valgus: condition in which a joint, bones or feathers turn outward to an abnormal degree. Aka "angel wing;" mostly in fledgeling waterfowl, but also in psittacines; caused by valgus deformity in carpometacarpal bones which rotate laterally 180 degrees; causes hatching problems, caused by lack of protein, genetic, calcium imbalance; results in too–rapid growth of blood-filled, heavy primaries being carried on inadequately mineralized bone; therefore it's a metabolic bone imbalance; young birds can be corrected with splinting; olderbirds require osteotomy then pinning

Valve: membranous fold which controls blood flow

Valve stenosis: narrowing or constriction of a valve

Vanes: rows of interlocking barbs that protrude from shaft on feather

Varus: position of a leg joint turned inward to abnormal degree;

Vascular Intima: innermost coat of a blood vessel

Vascularity: vessels or ducts that convey fluids, e.g., blood or lymph

Vasculitis: inflammation of blood or lymph vessels

Vascular/vascularized: pertaining to, composed of, provided with vessels or ducts that convey fluids, as blood or lymph; rendered vascular by the formation of new blood vessels or supplied with blood vessels

Vascular hamartoma: dermal tumor mass consisting of blood vessels

Vascular intima is the innermost coat of a blood vessel.

Vasoconstriction: a decrease in the diameter of blood vessels

Vasodilator: agent which dilates, or increases the diameter of blood vessels

Vectors: animal or organism that carries disease from one host to another; e.g., mosquito

Veins: return blood to heart, have thinner walls and are less elastic than arteries; have valves that permit blood flow toward the heart and prevent blood flow away from the heart

Vena cava: either of two large veins carrying blood to the right atrium of the heart. The cranial vena cava brings blood from the head region, front legs, and upper chest to the heart; the caudal (posterior) vena cava carries blood from the areas of the abdomen and hind legs to the heart

Venipuncture: withdrawing blood from a vein with a needle and syringe

Vent: opening of cloaca to the outside; located between the belly and base of the underside of the tail feathers

Vent glands; small, tubular glands on the lips of the vent; outside or inside, they secrete only mucoproteins; they enlarge during breeding season

Ventricles: chambers of the heart that pump blood

Ventricular arrhythmia: heart beats irregularly and/or at an abnormal rate because of signals coming from the ventricles

Ventriculus: second part of stomach; grinds the food for absorption in the small intestine; produces pepsin and other enzymes

Vermiculation: description of fine, waving lines seen in a bird's plumage; also wavelike contractions of intestine (peristalsis)

Vertebra/vertebrae: small bones in spine: 12 neck, 8 thoracic, 8 lumbar, 8 tail (fused at pygostyle)

Vertebral: referring to the individual vertebrae of the spinal column or to the entire spinal column

Vertical transmission: from mother to offspring or fetus

Vesicle: small, elevated area on the skin filled with a clear fluid

Vestibular system: portions of the inner ear, nerves and brain which help the body maintain balance

Vestigial: A small, imperfectly developed part or organ which has been more fully developed in past; e.g., right ovary

Vestigial ovary: the right ovary and oviduct of birds. Only the left ovary and reproductive organs are full-sized and functional

Vestigial toe: small, spur-like toe, seen above the feet and back of the leg of waterfowl

Vinaceous: a purplish-pink color in the plumage of some birds

Vinculum: end of the ulna bone as part of the elbow joint

Viral drift: mutations or genotypes

Viremic: virus in the blood

Virulence: competence of any infectious agent to produce disease; the degree of bodily damage it is capable of producing; strength of the pathogen

Virus: simple, non-cellular parasite that can reproduce only inside living cells; smallest form of life; infectious unit that enters and uses cells for replication; cause disease

Vicera/visceral: pertaining to any interior organ in any of the great body cavities, esp. in abdomen

Viscerocutaneous: pertaining to the internal organs and skin

Viscosity: thickness of a fluid; measured with a viscometer

Viteline membrane: transparent membrane surrounding and holding together the yolk of an egg

Vitello: yolk

Vitellogenesis: yolk formation

Vivipary/viviparous: live births

Volvulus: torsion or twisting of the intestine, causing obstruction

Vomer: a bone forming part of the nasal system

Wattle: fleshy skin that hangs from the lower bill of turkeys and chickens

Well-circumscribed: tumors or masses that have well-defined borders

White blood cells: major role is defense against invading organisms; e.g., bacteria, viruses, fungi; different types of leukocytes:

  • Lymphocytes: part of immune system, kill foreign invaders
  • Monocytes: associated with chronic disease
  • Eosinophils: defend against parasites, inflammation
  • Neutrophils/basophiles: contain histamines and are involved in inflammatory reactions

White blood count: total number of white cells per low-power field; measure of normal vs. disease state

Whole seed in feces: possible causes: ABV/PDD, candidiasis, increased motility, nematode parasites in GI tract, megabacteria

Wing bars: striping on bird's wing covering the base of the flight feathers

Wing projection: the projection of the primaries beyond the tail feathers, seen from the side  of a standing bird

Wing tips: the tips of the primaries, seen from the side

Wish bone: see "furcula"

Wound Healing: see

First intention

Second intention

Third intention

Partial Thickness

Wrist: carpometacarpus, where manus joint begins

Wry neck (torticollis): Abnormal twisting of head due to injury, disease, or nutritional imabalance

Xanthoma: benign tumor composed of lipids and cholesterol; associated with hypothyroidism, clostridium, subclinical/clinical illenss, high-fat seed diet, poor immune system; fatal if unchecked.

Xeropthalmia: abnormal dryness and thickening of the surface of the conjunctiva and cornea of the eye; caused by Vit A deficiency or local disease

Xerophilic: adapted to dry environments

Yersiniosis: (pseudotuberculosis): septicemia with gastroenteritis; signs: fever, toxemia, high fatality rate; high number of embolic absesses on most organs at necropsy

Yolk: yellow portion of egg containing all the lipids and most of the protein needed by developing embryo; surrounded and held together by vitelline membrane

Yolk stroke: convulsions, paralysis, not moving on floor of cage, torticolis; caused by yolk laid internally

Yolk peritonitis: lethargy, tail bobbing, abdominal swelling, recently laid eggs or laying imminent; yolk  misses oviduct, spills into abdominal cavity; lethal, sudden death; surgery needed to flush out abdominal cavity; removal of oviduct required

Yeast: unicellular fungi that reproduce by budding; pityrosporum folliculitis or malassezia

Zoonotic/zoonosis: disease which can be transmitted between animals and humans

Zygodactyl/zygodactylous: psittacine foot arrangement; 2 toes forward, 2 toes back

Zygomatic arch: bony arch at the outer border of the eye socket; formed by union of cheek bone and temporal bone

Zygote: fertilized egg or the developing individual produced from such a cell

Xerophilic/xerophile: birds which prefer dry habitats


Other Article Contributions by Jeannine Miesle

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